In volume 2, containing book 3, ‘The Order and Problems of Empirical Existence’, and book 4, ‘Deity’, Alexander conducts a philosophical investigation of various types of existents, expounds their relations to one another within space and time, and finally discusses the nature of deity.
In book 3, he considers, among other questions, whether the relation of mind to body and the relation of mind to its objects are unique. Alexander attempts to expound the manner in which the different orders of empirical existence are related to each other. Starting with chapter 1, ‘The Clue to Quality’, he analyses mind, its neutral basis and the apprehension of other minds; he continues the discussion in chapter 2 ‘The Order of Empirical Qualities’. In chapter 3, ‘The Empirical Problems’, he shows how the problems he has been discussing arise and should be presented. Then follow chapters on mind and knowing, mind and its acts, the ways of apprehending categories and qualities, appearances, illusion and ideas, value and freedom.
In book 4, in the course of three chapters, Alexander reflects on deity and god, on deity and the religious sentiment and finally on deity and value.