THE HISTORICAL STUDY OF RELIGION.
Die Weltgeschichte ist das Weltgericht.—The Fundamental Principle of the Historical School.—History of Religion is the True Philosophy of Religion.—Natural Religion the Foundation of our Belief in God.—The Real Purpose of the Biography of Agni.—Natural Revelation.—The True Object of comparing the Christian and other Religions.—Ancient Prayers.—Egyptian, Accadian, Babylonian, Vedic, Avestic, Gâthas, Chinese, Mohammedan, Modern Hindu Prayers.—Moses and the Shepherd.—Advantages of a Comparative Study of Religions
THE TRUE VALUE OF THE SACRED BOOKS EXAMINED.
Historical Documents for Studying the Origin of Religion.—Religious Language.—Literary Documents.—Modern Date of Sacred Books.—Fragmentary Character of the Sacred Books of India.—Loss of the Sacred Literature of Persia.—The Relation between the Avesta and the Old Testament.—‘I am that I am’
THE HISTORICAL RELATIONSHIP OF ANCIENT RELIGIONS AND PHILOSOPHIES.
How to compare Ancient Religions and Ancient Philosophies.—Common Humanity.—Common Language.—Common History.—Common Neighbourhood.—Relation between the Religions of India and Persia.—Independent Character of Indian Philosophy.—The Indian View of Life.—Language, the Common Background of Philosophy.—Common Aryan Religion and Mythology—Charites= Haritas—The later Growth of Philosophy.—Help derived by Philosophy from Language.-Independent Character of Indian Philosophy.—Was Greek Philosophy borrowed from the East?—Indian Philosophy autochthonous
THE RELATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TO PHYSICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL RELIGION.
The Constituent Elements of Religion.—My own Division.—The meaning of Psychological Religion.—I. Return of the Soul to God, after death.—II. Knowledge of the unity of the Divine and the Human.—Veda and Vedânta.—Upanishads.—Vedânta-Sûtras.—Commentary by Saṅkarâkârya.—Commentary by Râmânuga.—Three Periods of Vedânta Literature.—Peculiar Character of Indian Philosophy.—Philosophy begins with doubting the Evidence of the Senses.—Sruti or Inspiration.—Tat tvam asi.—Two Vedânta Schools.—The Upanishads difficult to translate
JOURNEY OF THE SOUL AFTER DEATH.
Different Statements from the Upanishads.—Passages from the Upanishads.—Difficulties of Interpretation.—Historical Progress in the Upanishads.—Attempts to harmonise the different Statements of the Upanishads.—Vedânta-Sütras.—Independent Statements in the Mantras.—Mythological Language misunderstood.—The Devayâna or Path of the Gods.—Metempsychosis.—Reality of Invisible Things.—Absence of Hells.—Transmigration as conceived in the Laws of Manu.—The Three Qualities, Darkness, Activity, and Goodness.—The Nine Classes.—Punishments of the Wicked.—Bridges
THE ESCHATOLOGY OF THE AVESTA.
General similarities in Eschatological Legends.—Peculiar relation between the Religions of India and Persia.—Zoroaster teaches neither Fire-worship nor Dualism.—The Problem of the Origin of Evil.—The Angels, originally qualities of Ormazd.—Asuras and Suras.—Abjuration of Daêva Worship.—Immortality of the Soul in the Avesta.—The Pitris or Fathers as conceived in the Vedic Hymns.—Fate of the individual Soul at the general resurrection.—Rewards and Punishments after Death.—Good Works in the shape of a Beautiful Maiden.—Influence on Mohammedanism.—Extract from the Minokhired on the Weighing of the Dead.—Arrival of the Soul before the throne of Bahman and Ahuramazda.—Common background of Avesta and Veda.—Pitaras, the Fathers in the Veda, the Fravashis in the Avesta.—Wider meaning of Fravashi
ESCHATOLOGY OF PLATO.
Plato's Authority.—Plato's Mythological Language—The Tale of the Soul.—The Charioteer and the Horses.—The Procession of the Gods.—Belief in metempsychosis in Plato and the Upanishads.—The Nine Classes of Plato and Manu.—Human Souls migrating into Animal Bodies.—The Story of Er.—Coincidences and Differences.—Truth underlying Myth.—The Haidas on the Immortality of the Soul.—The Polynesians on the Immortality of the Soul.—The last result of Physical Religion
Judaism and Buddhism.—The Vedânta Doctrine on True Immortality.—Personality, a Limitation of the Godhead.—Struggle for higher conception of the Godhead.—Name for the highest Godhead, Brahman, Purusha, Prâna, Spirit.—Other Names of the Supreme Being, Skambha.—Names for the Soul.—Aham, Ego.—Âtman.—Dialogue from the Khândogya—Upanishad.—Deductions from the Dialogue.—Saṅkara's Remarks.—The True Nature of the Individual Soul.—The Phenomenal and the Real.—The Âtman unchanged amidst the changes of the World.—Nescience or Avidyâ the Cause of Phenomenal Semblance.—Satyabhedavâda and Bhedâbhedavâda.—The Approach of the Soul to Brahman.—Later Speculations.—Identity of the Soul with Brahman
The Vedânta as a Philosophical System.—Identity of Soul and Brahman.—Dialogue from the Khândogya-Upanishad.—Union, not Absorption.—Knowledge, not Love of God.—Avidyâ or Nescience.—Brahman as sat, as kit, and as ânanda.—Philosophy and Religion.—The Supreme Lord or Îsvara.—Upâdhis, Sûkshmasarîra, and Sthûlasarîra.—Creation or Emanation.—Brahman and Avidyâ the Cause of the Phenomenal World.—The Essence of Man.—Karman or Apûrva.—Different States of the Soul.—Kramamukti. Gîvanmukti.—Personality of the Soul
THE TWO SCHOOLS OF THE VEDÂNTA.
Equivocal Passages in the Upanishads.—Saṅkara and Râmânuga.—Râmânuga.—Saṅkara.—Moral Character of the Vedânta.—Ascetic Practices.—Esoteric Doctrines.—Difference between India and Greece
Religion, System of Relations between Man and God.—Sufiism, its Origin,—Abstract of Sufi Doctrines.—Rabia, the earliest Sufi.—Connection of Sufiism with Early Christianity.—Abu Said Abul Cheir, Founder of Sufiism.—Abu Yasîd and Junaid.—Sufi, Fakîr, Darwîsh.—Asceticism.—The Mesnevi.—Mohammed's Opinion.—The Four Stages.—The Poetical Language of Sufiism.—Morality of Sufiism.—Extracts from Sufi Poets
Religion a Bridge between the Visible and the Invisible.—Oriental Influences in Early Christianity.—Borrowing of Religious Thoughts.—Philo and his Allegorical Interpretation.—Synesius. —Logos.—The Logos among the Klamaths.—The Historical Antecedents of the Logos.—The Origin of Species.—Heraclitus.—Anaxagoras.—Socrates and Plato.—Aristotle.—The Stoics.—Philo's Inheritance.—Philo's Philosophy.—The Logos a Bridge between God and the World.—Logos as the Son of God.—Wisdom or Sophia.—Monogenês, the Only Begotten.—Jupiter as Son of God
Stoics and Neo-Platonists.—Plotinus.—Letter from Plotinus to Flaccus.—Ecstatic Intuition.—Alexandrian Christianity. St. Clement.—The Trinity of St. Clement.—Origen.—The Alogoi
DIONYSIUS THE AREOPAGITE.
The Logos in the Latin Church.—Tertullian.—Dionysius the Areopagite.—Writings of Dionysius.—Translation by Scotus Erigena.—The Influence of the Dionysian Writings.—Sources of Dionysius.—The Daimones.—Influence of Dionysius during the Middle Ages.—The System of Dionysius.—Milman on Dionysius.—Real Attraction of Dionysius.—The Fifth Century.—Five Stages of Mystic Union.—Mysteries.—Mystic and Scholastic Theology.—Mysticism, and Christian Mysticism.—Objections to Mystic Religion reconsidered.—St. Bernard.—Love of God.—Ecstasis, according to St. Bernard.—St. Bernard's Position in the Church and State.—Hugo of St. Victor, Knowledge more certain than Faith.—Thomas Aquinas
Mystic Christianity.—The German Mystics.—The Fourteenth Century in Germany.—The Interdict.—The People and the Priesthood.—Dominicans and Franciscans.—Eckhart and Tauler.—Eckhart's Mysticism.—Eckhart's Definition of the Deity.—Creation is Emanation.—The Human Soul.—The Messiah and the Logos.—The Approach to God.—Birth of the Son.—Passages from the Fourth Gospel.—Objections to Mystic Religion.—Excessive Asceticism.—Sinlessness.—Want of Reverence for God.—Religion, the Bridge between the Finite and the Infinite