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For Analytical Table of Contents see pp. 599–609
Preface page 9
Acknowledgements 11


Chapter I: Catholic Teaching on Faith and Reason 23
Reason and Revelation 24
The Channels of Revelation 26
The Content of Revelation 28
The Acceptance of Revelation by Faith 30
Grounds for Belief in the Fact of Revelation 32
The Line between Philosophy and Theology 33
Chapter II: Reason and Revelation 37
Their Alleged Harmony 37
The Claim to a Scripture Inspired Throughout 38
Scriptural Inconsistencies 39
Possible Defences 41
Authentic vs Quoted Statements 41
Literal vs Metaphorical Statements 42
The Compromise of Vatican II 43
Corruptions in the Text 46
The Confinement of Inerrancy to Faith and Morals 49
The Paradox of a Veiled Revelation 51
The Doctrine of Infallibility 53
Inconsistency in Papal Pronouncements 55
Chapter III: Catholic Teaching on Revelation and Natural Knowledge 58
Nulla inter Fidem et Rationem Vera Dissensio 58
Revelation and Astronomy 59
Revelation and Biology 62
Revelation and Psychology 66
Science, Lourdes, and Fatima 68
Scientific vs Religious Faith 72
Miracles 74
Problems of the Miraculous 75
Chapter IV: Catholicism on the Marks of the Church 80
‘Motives’ and ‘Marks’ 80
1 The Unity of the Church 81
Inconsistencies in Teaching 82
Additions to the Teaching 83
Purgatory 85
New Doctrines Regarding the Virgin 88
The Theory of Development 89
Subtractions from the Teaching 91
2 The Sanctity of the Church 91
Morality Not Based on Authority 92
A Flawed Ideal 93
3 The Universality of the Church 96
4 The Apostolicity of the Church 98
The First Link in the Chain 98
Was ‘Thou Art Peter’ Ever Uttered? 99
The Attitude of the Apostles 101
The Attitude of the Fathers 101
The Attitude of the Councils 103
The Expected Second Coming 103
The Rise of the Papacy 104
The Second Meaning of Apostolicity 106
The Dialectic of Authority 108
Belief and Desire 110
Belief and the Intellectual Climate 111
Catholic Dogma in the Modern World 114


Chapter V: Reason and Faith in Luther 121
What Luther Inherited 122
The Character of Luther 124
Reason as the Enemy of Faith 129
The Creed as Foolishness to Reason 132
Reason Unsafe in Morals 133
God and Evil 134
The Meaning of Faith 136
Faith and Works 138
Scripture 141
Is Scripture the Final Authority? 144
Is Scripture Coherent? 145
The Arrogance of Philosophy 147
The Meaning of Original Sin 150
A Doctrine without Basis in History, Scripture, or Science 151
A Doctrine That Is Morally Indefensible 154
God and Original Sin 156
The Failure of Reason in Religion 159
The Wall between the Realms 161
The Crumbling of the Wall 163
The Attack on Reason Self-Defeating 165
‘Justification by Faith’: Who Is Justified? 167
Luther's Doctrine a Moral Depressant 168
Belief as the Essence of Faith 171
Knowledge of ‘the Heart’ 173
Faith May Mislead 174
Confusions of ‘the Heart’ 176
Fate as Dependent on Faith 179
An Immoral Ethics of Belief 180
Faith and Intellectual Integrity 182
Chapter VI: Reason and Faith in Kierkegaard 187
The Kierkegaard Revival 187
The Advance of Rationalism 188
The Existentialist Strategy 190
The ‘Stages on Life's Way’ 192
The Aesthetic Stage 192
The Ethical Stage 194
The Religious Stage (A) 197
Resignation 198
Suffering 199
The Cloud of Morbidity 201
Guilt 203
Guilt and Irrationality 206
Humour 209
The Humorous and the Inhuman 210
The Religious Stage (B) 212
Objectivity: the Failure of Philosophy 213
Individuals and Abstractions 214
Thought and Existence 216
The Failure of Objective Thought to Give Certainty 219
Belief as Commitment of the Will 220
Subjectivity: Its Meaning 223
Subjectivity as Truth 225
The Failure of Subjectivity 227
Subjectivity as Passion 229
The Leap of Faith 232
Faith as Non-rational 233
The Crucial Case of Abraham and Isaac 234
Kierkegaard as a Moral Nihilist 236
Rational Morals Repudiated 238
Rational Theology Repudiated 240
The Thinker and His Thought 242
Concluding Unhappy Postscript 245
Chapter VII: Reason and Revelation for Emil Brunner 248
The Revolt against Liberalism 248
Brunner on Human Nature 251
Brunner on Faith 255
Brunner on the Good Life 257
Brunner on Revelation and Reason 260
Revelation and Reason in Conflict 261
The Failure of Reason 264
Reason as Unavoidable 265
Theology vs Psychology 268
Theology vs History 270
The Relation of the Two Orders 271
Tension between the Orders 274
The Primacy of Reason 276
The Divine Imperative 278
Moral Nihilism Again 279
Moral Sanity 280
The Dangers of Misplaced Divinity 282
Error in High Places 283
The Analogy to Mysticism 285
Chapter VIII: Reason and Revelation for Karl Barth 288
The Neo-orthodox Position 288
What Revelation Is Not 290
Revelation vs the Bible 292
What Revelation Is 293
Earth's Achievement 294
In What Sense Is Reason Untrustworthy? 295
Knowledge as Incoherent 296
The Abandonment of Natural Reason Disastrous 297
Barth's Irrationalism 299
The Expropriation of Philosophy 301
Unintelligibility Rampant 302
Non-ethical Ethics 304
Strange Affinities 305
The Morality of the Sphinx 306
Barthianism and the Non-Christian World 308
The Futility of Moral and Religious Effort 309
Neo-orthodoxy and Science 311
Pride 316
The Temptation of Irrationalism 316


Chapter IX: Rationalism and Christian Ethics (I) 323
Creed and Conduct 323
Central Stresses in Christian Ethics 326
The Claim to Finality 330
Christianity and the Good of Knowledge 333
Christianity and the Natural Man 335
Christianity and Wealth 337
Christianity and Art 340
Christianity and Civic Duty 341
Christianity and Non-resistance 342
Courage 344
Christianity and Nationalism 348
Christianity and Slavery 350
Christianity and the Position of Women 351
St Paul on the Position of Women 356
Chapter X: Rationalism and Christian Ethics (II) 360
Christianity and Justice 360
Christianity and Work 365
Christianity and Family Relations 367
Christianity and the Love of God 369
The Love of God as a Motive 372
Christian Humility 375
Jesus: God or Man? 377
Limitations in Knowledge 381
Limitations in Power 388
The Originality of Jesus 390
The Claim to Moral Perfection 391
Christianity and the Regard for Reason 394
Chapter XI: The Ethics of Belief 400
Is Belief Voluntary? 402
Are Our Beliefs Our Own Concern Only? 404
Social Importance and Social Control 407
The Right to Believe: a Crucial Case 408
Science and the Ethics of Belief 410
Religion and the Ethics of Belief 411
The Gospel Teaching 412
The Pauline Teaching 413
The Coming of Rationalism 416
The Conflict of Principle 416
James's Revolt against Rationalism 418
James and the Will to Believe 419
The Love of Truth and Its Repression 421
Truth or Consequences 424
Pascal's Gamble 424
The Stakes of Religious Belief 427
Truth the Compass of Thought 428
Scepticism and Morality 429
The Use of Authority 430
Certainty and Probability 431
Chapter XII: Myth in Religion 434
Religion as a Threefold Response 434
The Animistic Origin of Religion 436
The Primitive Idea of the Soul 438
The Birth of Mythology 439
Myth as Incipient Science 440
The Manifold Offices of Myth 441
What Makes a Myth Live 442
The Mythology of the Hebrews 445
Myth as Edited by Morality 447
Christianity and the Liberation of Morality from Myth 449
Morals as the Shifting Base of Theology 451
The Autonomy of Christian Insight 452
The Lost Opportunity of the West 453
Return of the Church Fathers to Mythology 454
A Sample: the Myth of the Virgin 456
The Rational Appraisal of Dogma 464
The Melting Away of Dogma 466


Chapter XIII: Cosmology 477
The World a Coherent Whole 479
The World a Causal Whole 482
The Uniformity of Nature 483
The Law of Causality 484
Objections to the Sway of Causality 484
All Events Causally Interrelated 490
Causality Involves Necessity 493
Causal Necessity in Inference 495
A Priori Elements in Causation 496
Joseph and Ayer on Causation 498
Common Sense and the Perceptual World 502
The Perceptual World Dependent on Mind 503
Science and the Physical Order 508
Chapter XIV: Human Nature and Its Values 511
Mind as a Packet of Propensities 512
Need and Impulse as the Basis of Value 513
Cognitive Evolution 513
Conative Evolution 515
Morality and Intrinsic Value 517
The Nature of Goodness 517
Rationalism in Morals 519
Chapter XV: Goodness and the Absolute 522
God and the Absolute 523
The Absolute as Fulfilment 524
Bradley 525
Royce 529
Bosanquet 530
Is the Absolute Morally Good? 532
Is the Absolute Intrinsically Good? 533
A Neutral World 534
Chapter XVI: Religion and Rationalism 538
The Tension between Supernaturalism and Rationalism 538
The Purposive Root of Morality 540
Thought and Length of Vision 541
Thought and Breadth of Vision 541
Thought and Coherence of Aim 542
The Moral Republic 544
The Religious Protest 545
The Theology of Evil 546
Two-storied Man 547
The Transformation of Instinct by Thought 549
Sentiments 552
The Religious Sentiment 552
The Sentiment of Rationality 554
The Rational Impulse in Religion 555
Being Moral and Being Rational 558
Reasonableness as a Motive 560
The Reasonable Temper 561
Faith 565
Reverence 566
Humility 567
Notes 573
Analytical Table of Contents 599
Index 610
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