HOW TO STUDY PHYSICAL RELIGION.
The three divisions of natural religion.—The three phases of religion often contemporaneous.—Physical religion.—The historical method.—Historical continuity.—Varieties of physical religion.—Physical religion best studied in India.—The Vedic period.—Natural phenomena as viewed by nomad and agricultural people.—Physical religion outside of India.—The meaning of primitive.—Discoveries of ancient life.—Discovery of the Veda.—Unique character of the Veda
THE VEDA AND THE TESTIMONIES TO ITS EARLY EXISTENCE.
How did the Veda become known?—No foreign nations mentioned in the Veda.—The Veda not mentioned by foreign nations.—Early contact between India and Egypt Babylon and Persia.—Greek accounts of India.—Skylax.—Alexander's expedition to India.—Contact with China.—Buddhist Pilgrims.—Later contact with Persia.—Al-Birûnî 1000 A.D.—The Emperor Akbar 1556–1605.—Prince Dârâ translator of the Upanishads.—Schopenhauer
THE VEDA AS STUDIED BY EUROPEAN SCHOLARS.
Thread of our argument.—European missionaries in India.—European scholars acquainted with the Vedas.—Asiatic Society of Bengal.—Interest aroused in Germany.—Bunsen's projected journey to India.—MSS. of the Veda brought to Europe.—Eugène Burnouf in France.—First edition of the Rig-veda
SURVEY OF VEDIC LITERATURE.
Peculiar character of Indian antiquity.—Meaning of Veda.—The Rig-veda the only true Veda.—Brahmanic view of the Vedas.—The Rig-veda.—The ten Mandalas.—Method in the collection of the ten Mandalas.—Number of hymns.—The Prâtisâkhyas.—Date of the Prâtisâkhya.—Minutiae of the Prâtisâkhya.—The Anukramanîs of Saunaka.—Number of verses in the Rig-veda.—The Sâma-veda.—Yagur-veda.—The Khandas or Mantra period.—The prose Brâhmanas—The Brâhmanas of the Yagur-veda.—The Brâhmanas of the Sâma-veda.—The Brâhmanas of the Rig-veda.—The true Veda.—The Brâhmanas of the Brâhmans.—Life during the Vedic period.—Poem on trades and professions.—Poem of the gambler.—Independent speculation.—Âranyakas and Upanishads.—Duration of Brâhmana period.—The Atharva-veda
AGE OF THE VEDA.
An accurate knowledge of the Veda necessary for a study of physical religion.—How to fix the date of the Veda.—Aryan immigration into India.—Sindhu cotton mentioned 3000 B.C.—The Sûtras.—The three literary periods of the Vedic age.—Chronological terminus ad quem.—Sandrocottus died 291 B.C.—Buddhism a reaction against the Vedic religion.—The word Upanishad.—The word Sûtra.—Relation of Buddhism to Brâhmanism.—Constructive chronology.—Character of the Veda.—Simplicity of Vedic hymns.—Moral elements.—Early sacrifices.—Childish thoughts in the Veda.—More exalted ideas.—The sacrificial character of the Vedic hymns.—Yag to sacrifice.—Hu to pour out.—Sacrificial terms.—Other sacrificial terms.—Prayer better than sacrifice.—The primitive sacrifice.—Morning and evening meal.—Lighting and keeping of the fire.—New and full moon.—The three seasons.—The meaning of solemn
Definition of physical religion.—God as a predicate.—Deification.—The natural and the supernatural.—Agni fire as one of the Devas.—Early conceptions of fire.—The etymological meaning of Agni.—Names of fire.—Fire named as active.—Agni as a human or animal agent.—New explanation of animism personification and anthropomorphism.—Mr. Herbert Spencer against animism.—Professor Tiele's theory of the gods as facteurs.—The agents in nature.—The categories of the understanding.—The categories of language.—Fire as a Deva.—Greek and Roman gods.—Ruskin on the ancient gods.—Evolution of the word deva.—Natural revelation of God.—The biography of Agni
THE BIOGRAPHY OF AGNI.
Facts against theories.—Premature generalisation.—Agni in his physical character.—Agni as the sun.—Agni the sun or the fire on the hearth.—Sun and fire in America.—Sun and fire among the Fins.—Agni as lightning.—Mâtarisvan.—Fire from flint.—Fire from wood.—Mythological ideas connected with fire.—Agni as deva bright amartya undying &c.—Agni the immortal among mortals.—Agni the friend helper father.—Agni helper in battle.—Fireless races.—Agricultural Âryas.—Agni destroying forests.—Agni's horses.—Agni as sacrificial fire.—Agni the messenger between gods and men.—Agni as priest.—Hymn to Agni
AGNI AS DIVESTED OF HIS MATERIAL CHARACTER.
Later development of Agni.—Agni identical with other gods.—Henotheism.—Henotheism in Finland.—Early scepticism.—Exchange of gods.—Dual deities.—Reconciliation of the solar and meteoric theories.—Supremacy of Agni.—The general name of deity.—Evolution of concepts.—The highest concept of deity.—Agni as creator ruler judge.—The dark side of Indian religion.—Anthropomorphism.—The sage Nârada.—Influence of children on religion
THE USEFULNESS OF THE VEDIC RELIGION FOR A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF OTHER RELIGIONS.
Agni fire in other religions.—No religious literature in Greece and Italy.—Religion in Egypt.—Brugsch on Egyptian religion.—Le Page Renouf on the gods of Egypt.—Religion in Babylon and Assyria.—Where to study the historical growth of religious ideas.—The Old Testament.—Invention of alphabetic writing.—The sixth century B.C.—The Old Testament as an historical book.—Monotheistic instinct of the Semitic race.—Abraham.—Elijah.—The god of fire in the Old Testament
FIRE AS CONCEIVED IN OTHER RELIGIONS.
Fire widely worshipped.—Fire in the Avesta.—Ormazd not fire.—Âtar fire.—Âtar fights with Azi Dahâka.—Plurality of Âtar.—Âtar son of Ormazd.—Difference between Âtar and Agni.—Is the Avestic religion dualistic?—Fire in Egypt.—Modern character of the Egyptian religion.—Ra.—Osiris.—Ptah.—Tvashtri in the Veda.—Fire in Greece Hephaestos.—Fire in Italy Vulcanus.—Philosophical concepts of fire in Greece.—The fire of Herakleitos.—Zoroaster.—Fire and water in the Brâhmanas.—Fire as worshipped in Babylon.—The true antiquity of the Veda
THE MYTHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF AGNI.
Tales about Agni.—Euhemeristic explanations of mythology.—Ancient riddles.—Brahmodya.—The disappearance of Agni.—Dialogue between Agni and Varuna.—Later accounts of the hiding of Agni.—The meaning or hyponoia of mythology.—Lessons of comparative mythology
RELIGION MYTH AND CUSTOM.
Difference between religion and mythology.—Secular ideas become religious.—Lighting and keeping of fire.—Religious sanction for customs.—Baptism by water and fire.—Purification by fire.—Lustration of animals.—Need-fire.—Tinegin in Ireland.—Purpose of customs often forgotten.—Essential difference between religion mythology and ceremonial.—Theogonic development of Agni.—Mythological development of Agni.—Ceremonial development of Agni.—Definition of religion re-examined.—The meaning of the Infinite.—The religious element
OTHER GODS OF NATURE.
The development of fire.—The agents behind the other phenomena of nature.—The theogonic process.—Wordsworth.—The storm-wind.—The storm-wind in America.—The storm-wind in Babylon.—The storm-wind in India.—The Marus of the Buddhists.—Rudra the father of the Maruts.—The storm-wind in Germany.—Odin Wuotan.—The mixed character of ancient gods.—The theogonic development
WHAT DOES IT LEAD TO?
Value of historical studies.—Lessons of natural religion.—The agents in nature.—One agent in nature.—Craving for the super-natural.—Miracles condemned by Mohammed.—Miracles condemned by Buddha.—Miracles condemned by Christ.—The super-natural as natural.—Common elements of all religions; the Ten Commandments.—Similarities between Christianity and Buddhism.—Divine character ascribed to the founders of religions.—Buddha's birth.—Birth of Mahâvîra.—Mohammed's birth.—Other prophets.—The birth of Christ.—Signs changed to miracles.—Dr. Robert Lee.—The highest commandments.—Conclusion
Are Parthians Persians and Bactrians mentioned in the Veda?
Skylax and the Paktyes the Pashtu or Afghans
Buddhist Pilgrims acquainted with the Veda
Sanskrit MSS. bought by Guizot
Date of the Prâtisâkhya
Minutiae of the Prâtisâkhya
Number of verses in the Rig-veda
Brâhmanas of the Sâma-veda
Sanskrit words in Sumerian
Technical terms borrowed by the Buddhists
Pischel and Geldner's ‘Vedische Studien’
Writing mentioned in the Old Testament
Similarities between Christianity and Buddhism