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This volume contains my second course of Gifford Lectures, as I delivered them before the University of Glasgow in the beginning of this year, with a few additions, mostly printed at the end of the volume.

In lecturing before an academic audience, I felt in duty bound to make my meaning as clear as possible, even at the risk of becoming tedious in driving the nail home more than once.

Nor could I avoid repeating here and there what I had written elsewhere, if I wished to place the subject before my hearers in a complete and systematic form.

Attentive readers will find, however, that in restating what I had said before, I often had to modify or correct my former statements, and I hope the time may never come, when I can no longer say, We live and learn.


Oxford Dec. 6, 1890.

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