Introductory — Lord Gifford — The bequest — The lectureships — God really all in all to Lord Gifford — The lecturers — Natural theology the only science — The immediate lecturer — The three Churches — Feeling — Understanding — Both — Intolerance — Reason as reason — The positive — Rationalism — Anfklärung — “Advanced” views — The temper of the time — Tom Paines of the tap — No-God men — What is really the new — The prejudice against belief — Duty of philosophy now — Sacred books — Those of the Hebrews — Discrepancies — Buckle Hume Voltaire — Historical anachronism
Gifford Lecture the First.
The Bequest of Lord Gifford — Its Conditions.
Gifford Lecture the Second.
Natural Theology — How to be Treated.
Natural theology what is it? — Usual answers — Hutcheson — Varro — The Middle Ages — Raymund of Sebonde — Rays Paleys etc. — Till 1860 — Since — Philosophies of religion — Pagan gods — De Quincey Augustine Cicero Pliny Juvenal Herodotus Aulus Gellius — The proofs historically treated — That the theme — Plotinus Augustine — Natural theology not possibly a physical science — Understanding and faith Augustine Anselm — Monotheism alone religion proper — The course affirmative negative — China India Colebrooke Râs bihâî Mukharjî — Hindu texts (Gnostics) — Hesiod
Gifford Lecture the Third.
Historical Treatment of the Proofs — Anaxagoras.
Final causes — The four Aristotelian causes — Are there final causes in nature — Matter and form — Other causes only to realize the final causes — Cudworth — Adam Smith — The proofs number order etc. — Teleology — Anaxagoras — Socrates in the Phædo — Xenophon — Plato — Socrates on Anaxagoras — The causes together concrete — “Abstract” — Forces Clerk Maxwell — Heraclitus — Newton — Buckle — Descartes — Gassendi — Bacon on causes metaphysics and forms — The νου̃ς (nous) of Anaxagoras — Bacon on design — Reid Newton Hume on design — Newton
Gifford Lecture the Fourth.
Anaxagoras and Design.
Anaxagoras the νου̃ς — Aristotle — Understanding — Pythagoreans — Pantheism — Lord Gifford — Baghavad Gita — The νου̃ς to Socrates Plato Aristotle — Grote Schwegler Zeller — The world a life — Berkeley Cudworth Plato Zorzi — Subject and object — Nature and thought — Externality and internality — Bruno — Universal and particular — Spinoza — Physical theories — Space and time — Hodgson Carlyle Berkeley Reid Leibnitz Kant — But for an eye and an ear the world utterly dark utterly silent
Gifford Lecture the Fifth.
Design Generally — Socrates.
Astronomy space time the νου̃ς — Kant Fichte Schelling — Carlyle the Sartor — Emerson — Plato — Aristotle — A beginning — The want of eye and ear again — Deafness and blindness together — Design restored — Thomson — Diogenes of Apollonia — Socrates — Meteorology and practical action — Morality and ethicality — The first teleological argument — Proofs of design — Bacon — Socrates finally
Gifford Lecture the Sixth.
Design — Plato.
Plato — His position — His prose — Indebted to Socrates — Monotheism — The popular gods — Socrates' one principle — His method — Universalized by Plato — Epinomis — The Timaeus — The eyes etc. — Kant here — Subject and object — Mechanical and final causes — The former only for the latter — Identity and difference — Creation the world — Time and eternity — The Christian Trinity — The two goods — Religion the Laws — Prayer — Superstition — Hume Dugald Stewart Samuel Johnson Buckle — The Platonic duality — Necessity and contingency — Plato's work
Gifford Lecture the Seventh.
The Sophists — Their Negative. Aristotle.
Sophists — Aufklärung — Disbelief Simon of Tournay Amalrich of Bena David of Dinant — Italian philosophers Geneva Socinians Bacon Hobbes the Deists Locke Descartes Spinoza — Hume Gibbon — Germany Reimarus etc. — Klopstock Lavater — Lessing Hamann Herder Jacobi — Goethe Schiller Jean Paul — Caryle — France — Kant and his successors — Necessary end of such movements — Cosmological argument — Locke Clarke Leibnitz — Aristotle — Dependency — Potentiality and actuality — A beginning — Aristotle and design — Mr. Darwin's mistake — Empedocles and the survival of the fittest
Gifford Lecture the Eighth.
Aristotle and the Proofs.
Aristotle and design — Matter and form — Abstraction — Trinity — The ascent — The four causes — A first mover — Lambda of the Metaphysic — The hymn of Aristotle — Speculation — Mankind — Erdmann — Theory and practice — Nature — Kant Byron Mme. Genlis — Aristotle's ethic and politic — God — Cicero — Time — Design — Hume Buffon — Plato and Aristotle — Immanent Divinity and transcendent Deity — Schwegler — Bonitz — The soul — Unity — Homer — The Greek movement up to Aristotle Biese — The Germans and Aristotle — Cuvier Owen Franzius Johann von Müller — Darwin — Aristotle in conclusion
Gifford Lecture the Ninth.
The Sects and the Proofs — Cicero.
The Sects — The Skeptics — The Epicureans — Epicurus — Leucippus and Democritus — Aristotle Plato — Stoics Pantheism — Chrysippus — Origin of evil — Antithesis — Negation — Epictetus — The Neo-Platonists — Important six hundred years — Course of history — Reflection at last — Aufklärang Revolution — Rome — The atom the Cæsar — The despair of the old the hope of the new — Paganism Christianity — The State — The temple — Asceticism — Philosophy the East Alexandria — The Neo-Platonists — Ecstasy — Cicero — Paley and the others all in him — All probably due to Aristotle — Sextus — Philo Judaeus — Minucius Felix — Cicero now as to Dr. Alexander Thomson and the Germans — A word in defence
Gifford Lecture the Tenth.
The Fathers — Anselm.
Cicero — To Anselm — The Fathers — Seneca Pliny Tacitus — God to the early Fathers — Common consent in the individual and the race — Cicero — Irenaeus Tertullian Chrysostom Arnobius Clement of Alexandria Lactantius Cyril of Alexandria Julian Gregory of Nyssa and others Athanasius — Reid religion superstition — The Bible — F. C. Baur — Anselm — His argument — The College Essay of 1838 — Dr. Fleming — Illustrations from the essay — Gaunilo — Mr. Lewes — Ueberweg Erdmann Hegel — The Monologium — Augustine and Boethius — The Proslogium — Finite and infinite — What the argument really means — Descartes — Knowledge and belief
Gifford Lecture the Eleventh.
Introductory — Lord Gifford's Essays.
Lectures by Lord Gifford — By whom edited — Germane to and illustrative of natural theology — Number and nature — Their literary excellence — Even poetical — Der laute Lärm des Tages — On attention — On St. Bernard of Clairvaux — (Luther Gibbon) — What Lord Gifford admires — The spirit of religion — The Trinity — Emerson Spinoza — Substance — Brahmanism — Religion — Understanding and reason — Metaphysical terms — Materialism — Literary enthusiasm — Technical shortcomings — Emerson and Carlyle — Social intercourse — Humanity — Liberality and tolerance — Faith — Mesmerism — Ebenezer Elliott — An open sense to evidence
Gifford Lecture the Twelfth.
The Negative — Hume.
A settlement for faith Lord Gifford's object — Of our single theme the negative half now — Objections to or refutations of the proofs — Negative not necessarily or predominatingly modern Kant Darwin — The ancient negative the Greeks Pythagoreans Ionics Eleatics Heraclitus Empedocles Democritus (Bacon) Anaxagoras Socrates Sophists Diagoras Aristotle Aristoxenus Dicaearchus Strato (Hume Cudworth) Aristophanes etc. — Rome — Modern Europe France Hume and the seventeen atheists — Epochs of atheism — David Hume his influence — To many a passion and a prejudice — Brougham Buckle — Style! — Taste! — Blair — Hume's taste Pope Shakespeare. John Home — Othello — The French to Hume — Mr. Pope! — Some bygone litterateurs — Personality and character of Hume — Jokes stories Kant Aristotle — The Scotch — The Epigoniad — America — Germany — Generosity affection friendship hospitality — Smollett — Burke — but Hume honest genuine and even religious and pious
Gifford Lecture the Thirteenth.
The Negative and Hume (continued).
The Dialogues concerning Natural Religion — Long consideration and repeated revision of them — Their publication Hume's anxiety for his friends' difficulties with — Style Cicero — Words and things Quintilian — Styles old and new — The earlier works — The Treatise — The Enquiry Rosenkranz — Hume's provision — Locke Berkeley — Ideas — Connection in them — Applied to the question of a Deity — Of a Particular Providence — Extension of the cause inferred to he proportioned only to that of the given effect — Applied to the cause of the world — Natural theology to Hume — Chrysippus in Plutarch — Greek — The order of argumentation — The ontological — Matter the necessary existence — The cosmological answers that — Infinite contingencies insufficient for one necessity — The teleological — Analogy inapplicable — Hume's own example
Gifford Lecture the Fourteenth.
The Negative and Hume (concluded).
The teleological argument — Two moments — First the alleged necessity of thought — It has itself no end — So matter enough — Thought itself only a part limited imperfect and in want of explanation — Thought as thought common to us all Grote Hume Erigena Heraclitus — The sole necessity — Second the analogy — The supreme cause not situated as other causes — Other principles vegetation generation — The world an animal — The Empedoclean expedient — The effect only warrants great power not Almighty power — Evil — Free opinion — Hume's friends — Epicurus's dilemma — Superstition results — Four suggestions — No pain — Special volitions — Greater strength — Extremes banished from the world — Creation on general principles — Erasmus Darwin — Mr. Froude Carlyle — Finitude as such externality as such — Antithesis — Charles V. — Abdalrahman III. — Septimius Severus — Johnson — Per contra — Wordsworth Gibbon Hume — Work Carlyle — The trades — Comparison — Self-contradiction — Identity — Hegel — “As regards Protoplasm” — The Hindoos — Burton on cause — Sir John Herschel — Brown Dugald Stewart — Spinoza — Erdmann — Notions and things Erigena — Rabelais — Form and matter — Hume in conclusion
Gifford Lecture the Fifteenth.
Kant on the Proofs.
Transition Hume to Kant — Effect of Kant on natural theology — The centre of Kant's thought — Hume led to this — Causal necessity — That necessity objective — Still in matters of fact — Relations of ideas — Hume on one side Kant on the other of the dilemma — Hume quite as Reid on natural necessity — But what the explanation to intellectual insight — Synthetic addition — Analytic implication — Change — Kant's explanation is There are à priori syntheses native to the mind — The whole Kantian machinery in a sentence — Time and space — The twelve categories and the three ideas — A toy house — A peculiar magic lantern — A psychology — A metaphysic — Analysis of the syllogism for the ideas — Simple apprehension missed — An idea — The ideal — The teleological proof
Gifford Lecture the Sixteenth.
Kant and the Proofs (concluded)
The cosmological proof — Contingency — Ab alio esse and esse a se — The special contingency an actual fact in experience — This Kant would put out of sight — Jehovah — Two elements in the argument experience and ideas — The generality of the experience — Also of the idea — Contingency is a particular empirical fact — Ens realissimum — Only the ontological argument in disguise — Logical inference — But just generally the all-necessary being of such a world — Hume anticipated Kant — Why force analogy — Why transcend nature — No experience of such cause which must not exceed the effect — Hume's early memoranda — The “nest” — All Kant dependent on his own constant sense of school-distinctions — His entire world — The system being true what is true? — The ontological argument — No thinking a thing will bring it to be — What it all comes to the single threefold wave — Hegel — Middle Age view from Augustine to Tauler — Meister Eckhart — Misunderstanding of mere understanding — The wickedest then a possible divine reservoir — Adam Smith and the chest of drawers — Absurd for Kant to make reason proper the “transcendent shine” — The Twelfth Night cake but the ehrliche Kant
Gifford Lecture the Seventeenth.
Darwin and Design.
The three degrees positive comparative superlative in negation of the proofs or Hume Kant Darwin — The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin chapter viii. of the first volume — Darwin one of the best of men — Design — Uniformity and law — Darwin's own words — He himself always gentle — But resolute to win — Concessiveness — Religious sentiment — Disbelief — Jokes — Natural selection being materialism is true and ideas are only derivative — The theory — A species what — Sterility — What suggested natural selection to Darwin — Bakewell's achievements as a breeder — Darwin will substitute nature for Bakewell to the production not of new breeds but absolutely of new species — His lever to this change by natural accident and chance: such necessarily proving either advantageous disadvantageous or indifferent — Advantage securing in the struggle for life survival of the fittest disadvantage entailing death and destruction indifference being out of count — The woodpecker the misletoe — But more variation the very fulcrum — Variation must be and consequences to the organism must be: hence the whole — But never design only a mechanical pullulation of differences by chance that simply prove advantageous or disadvantageous etc. — Conditions — Mr. Huxley — Effect of the announcements of Sir Joseph Hooker and Sir Charles Lyell — Mr. Darwin insists on his originality — His difficulties in winning his way — Even those who agree with him as Lyell Hooker and others he demurs to their expressions: they fail to understand — Mr. Darwin's own qualms — “What makes a tuft of feathers come on a cock's head or moss on a moss-rose?” — That the question — Still spontaneous variation both universal and constant
Gifford Lecture the Eighteenth.
Darwin and Design (continued)
The theory — Individual variation — Darwin early looked for natural explanation of design — Creation its senses — Antisthenes Colebrooke Cudworth — Creative ideas — Anaxagoras — Aristotle — Mr. Clair Grece and Darwin — For design Mr. Darwin offers a mechanical pullulation of individual difference through chance but with consequent results that as advantageous or disadvantageous seem concerted — The Fathers — Nature the phenomenon of the noumenon a boundless externality of contingency that still is a life — Nature the object will only be when it reaches the subject — That object be or subject be both must be — Even the crassest material particle is already both elementarily — As it were even inorganic matter possesses instincts — Aristotle design and necessity — Internalization — Time space motion matter — The world — Contingency — A perspective of pictures — The Vestiges and evolution — Darwin deprecates genealogies but returns to them — The mud-fish — Initial proteine — There are so many mouths to eat it up now — Darwin recants his pentateuchal concession to creation — Depends on “fanciers and breeders” — The infinitudes of transition just taken by Mr. Darwin in a step — Hypothesis — Illustration at random — Difference would go on to difference not return to the identity — Mr. Lewes and Dr. Erasmus — The grandfather's filament — Seals — The bear and the whale — Dr. Erasmus on the imagination on weeping on fear on the tadpole's tail on the rationale of strabismus
Gifford Lecture the Nineteenth.
Darwin and Design (continued).
Dr. Erasmus Darwin. — Student scribbles on Zoonomia — Family differences attraction and repulsion — The Darwins in this respect — Dr. Erasmus of his sons Mr. Charles and Dr. R. W. — Dr. R W. as to his sons — Charles on his grandfather father brother — Mr. Erasmus on his brother's book — On the à priori — On facts — Darwin's one method — Darwin and Hooker on facts — Family politics — Family religion — Family habits — Family theories — Mr. Darwin's endowments — His Journal — The Zoonomia — Theories of Dr. Erasmus — Paley — Instinct — An idea to Dr. E. — Dugald Stewart — Picture-thinking — Dr. E.'s method — Darwin's doubts — His brave spirit — The theory to his friends — Now — Almost every propos of the grandson has its germ in the grandfather (Krause) — Yet the position of the latter — Byron on — Mr. Lewes also — The greater Newton original Darwinism now to be revived — Dr. E. admirable on design — Charles on cats made by God to play with mice! — Dr. E. on atheism — The apology — But will conclude with a single point followed thoroughly out: the Galapagos — Darwin held to be impregnably fortified there — The Galapagos thrown up to opponents at every turn — But we are not naturalists! — Dr. E. rehabilitates us — Description of the Galapagos from the Journal — The islands their size number position geographical and relative — depth of water and distance between — Climate currents wind — Geology botany zoology — Volcanoes dull sickly vegetation hills craters lava pits heat salt-pools water — Tortoises lizards birds — Quite a region to suggest theory
Gifford Lecture the Twentieth.
Darwin and Design — (conclusion).
The action — South American types left here to themselves change into new species from accumulation of their own individual spontaneous differences — The birds — Differences in the times and modes of arrival between land and sea birds — Carte and tierce — Contradiction — Parried by a word — An advocate's proof — The printer and Mr. Darwin's woulds — The sea-gull — The finches — Sir William Jardine — The process to Darwin — What was to him “a new birth” — Where the determinative advantage for these different beaks — The individual central islands not incommunicably separate — French birds at Dover — Isolation — Ex-contrario — Individual difference the single secret that is the “law” which has been “discovered” of “natural selection” — Apply influence of external conditions to the Galapagos — Kant — The Galapagos rat and mouse — New beings but yet the old names — If difference goes always on only to difference without return to identity why are there not infinitely more species? — Bowen — Darwin only empedoclean — Parsons — Lyell — Monsters (giants and dwarfs) sterile — Frederick's grenadiers the pygmies — Divergent species at home — The Galapagos but the Mr. Jorkins of the Darwinians — The tortoise where did it come from? — The amblyrhyncus similarly inexplicable — Lizards of the secondary epoch — The Galapagos Islands absolutely without a vestige of the struggle for life in any direction — The breeder and nature can act only on what is already there — The breeder deals in identity not difference and his breeds would all turn back to the original — No breeder a new species — Nature acts not on Darwin's method but design — Toothed birds the hipparion the otter-sheep — Accidental individual difference to he the sole creator in the end of all that enormous and infinitely complicated concert to unity! — Farewell
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