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Table of Contents.

Table of Contents.

Preface

Lecture 1.
INTRODUCTORY LECTURE ON LORD GIFFORD'S BEQUEST
Lecture 2.
DEFINITION OF RELIGION.
Definition of religion why wanted. — Great differences in defining religion. — Is Buddhism a religion? — Definition of definition. — Etymological definition. — Historical definition. — Dogmatic definition. — Etymological definition of religio. — Historical definition of religio. — Later meanings of religio. — Dogmatic definitions. — Religion and theology. — Dogmatic and practical religion. — Comparative theology. — Schleiermacher's definition of religion. — Religion either belief or body of doctrines
Lecture 3.
EXAMINATION OF DEFINITIONS.
Natural and revealed religions. — Comparative theology. — Modus cognoscendi el colendi Deum. — Feeling or knowledge as motive of action. — The object of religion must be defined. — Fichte on atheism. — Goethe and Lavater. — Different classes of definitions. — Practical religion. — Kant. — Caird. — Pfleiderer. — Martineau. — Schenkel and Newman. — Theoretical religion. — Religion as sentiment or knowledge. — Teichmüller. — Author of ‘Natural Religion.’ — Goethe. — Mill. — Spinoza 1632–77. — Schloiermacher 1768–1834. — Hegel 1770–1831. — Fichte 1762–1814. — How to account for these different definitions
Lecture 4.
POSITIVIST DEFINITIONS OF RELIGION.
Wundt. — Feuerbach. — Gruppe. — Selfishness as source of religion. — Gruppe's definition too narrow. — Universality of religion. — Angle of vision. — Darwin on Tierra del Fuego. — Niebuhr and Bunsen. — Lubbock v. Quatrefages. — Preconceived ideas. — Names for religion. — Words for religion in Chinese; in Arabic. — Dharma. — Veda. — Bhakti. — Sraddhâ faith
Lecture 5.
MY OWN DEFINITION OF RELIGION.
Is Buddhism a religion? — Buddhism as theoretical not included under any definition. — Mâlunkya-putta and Buddha. — Yamaka on life after death. — Dialogue between the king of Kosala and the nun Khemâ. — Buddhism as practical not included under any definition. — The doctrine of Karma — Definition of religion. — Religion an experience. — Experience consists of sensations percepts concepts and names. — Sensation and perception inexplicable. — The working of our mind. — No percept without language; Helmholtz. — Perceptions always finite. — Finite and definite — The finite implies the infinite. — The infinite in space. — The infinite in time. — The infinite as cause. — Misunderstandings. — Savages without words for finite and infinite. — The Duke of Argyll's definition of religion. — Early names of the infinite. — Mana. — Manito. — Does the Vedic religion begin with sacrifice? — Germs of the infinite in the Veda. — The infinitely groat — The infinitely small. — Infinite inseparable from finite. — The concept of cause
Lecture 6.
THE INFINITE IN NATURE IN MAN AND IN THE SELF.
Positivist objections. — Historical evolution. — Positivist point of view. — Rig-veda. — The dawn. — End and endless. — Endless in the Avesta. — Theogonic elements. — How the perception of the infinite led to religious ideas. — Tangible semi-tangible intangible objects. — Trees. — Mountains. — Rivers. — Earth. — Clouds stars moon sun sky. — Demi-gods and great gods. — The infinite in man as an object. — The something behind man. — The infinite behind man. — Religious ideas springing from it. — Animism. — Seelencult. — Strange names; Totemism. — The infinite in man as a subject. — Psychological deities. — Sense imagination intellect language. — Devatâs. — Âtma. — Natural religion as physical anthropological and psychological
Lecture 7.
RELIGION DIFFERENT FROM SCIENCE.
Religious character. — Religion and science. — What imparts a religious character. — Moral influences of physical phenomena. — Vedic prayers. — Early morality. — Moral influence of ancestral spirits. — Ancestral law in China. — Moral influence of psychological deities. — Temple to Mens. — Eros and Psyche. — Conscience. — Remorse. — Have we a conscience? — Sacrifices an element of religion. — Priesthood. — Study of the Veda. — Final definition of religion
Lecture 8.
THE HISTORICAL METHOD.
Criticisms of my definition. — Pfieiderer. — Gruppo. — Religion a psychological necessity. — History v. Theory. — Theory. — Causalitas. — Eminentia. — Negatio. — Cosmological teleological ontological arguments. — Historical method. — Archaeology. — Theoretic school. — Historical school. — Study of language. — Historical school. — Acutus. — Theoretic school. — Brinton on palaeolithic language. — Advantages of both theories. — Science of religion. — Historical school. — Semitic Aryan Chinese religions. — Religions without books
Lecture 9.
HISTORICAL TREATMENT OF RELIGIOUS QUESTIONS.
Is religion possible? — History and theory inseparable. — Agnosticism. — Epicurean view of the gods. — Chance and purpose; Darwin. — Atheism. — Intuitive knowledge of the gods. — Philosophical treatment. — Vision in the Bhagavadgitâ. — Revelation. — — Historical traces in the Veda. — The old problems in their simpler form
Lecture 10.
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RELIGIOUS PROBLEMS.
Modern problems to be traced back. — Creation. — The logic of facts. — Cosmological argument. — Aryan savages. — Why? — Answers to the cosmological question. — Emanation. — Emanation or srishti. — Golden egg. — Teleological argument. — Anthropomorphism. — Ontological argument. — A creator. — Origin of the idea of cause. — Religions without a creator. — The theory of evolution. — Meaning of evolution. — Darwin admits a creator. — Herder the precursor of Darwin. — Evolution in the beginning of our century. — Gottfried Hermann. — Kant on the Chimpanzee. — Darwin. — Oken. — Reaction. — Historical school its true character. — Stanley. — Necessity of an historical study of religion. — Criticisms answered
Lecture 11.
MATERIALS FOR THE STUDY OF NATURAL RELIGION.
Language Myth Customs and Laws Sacred Books. — Language as evidence. — Survey of languages. — ARYAN FAMILY. — English. — Veda= ;ἰ̑δα. — Anglo-Saxon. — Gothic. — Continental Saxon. — Scandinavian. — Thorr and Thursday. — Týr and Tuesday. — Wodan and Wednesday. — High German. — Celtic. — Italic. — Hellenic. — Slavonic. — North-Western Division — South-Eastern Division. — Indic class Vedic Hymns Brâhmanas Sütras Pâninean Sanskrit. — Inscriptions of Piyadasi third century B.C. — Buddhist Sanskrit. — Renaissance of Sanskrit literature. — Prâkrit. — Vernaculars. — Sacred Books. — Iranie class. — Cuneiform Persian inscriptions. — Pehlevi. — Bask Etruscan. — SEMITIC FAMILY. — Aramaic. — Chaldaie and Syriac. — Hebraic. — Arabic. — Ethiopic.
Lecture 12.
PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION.
Languages not Aryan and not Semitic. — Morphological classification. — Genealogical as different from morphological classification. — Degrees of relationship. — Morphological classification. — Radical stage. — Terminational stage. — Inflectional stage. — Transitions from one stage to another. — Chinese. — Rask's and Prichard's classification. — Vocalic harmony
Lecture 13.
LANGUAGES NOT ARYAN AND NOT SEMITIC.
The Ural-Altaic family. — Samoyedic. — Altaic languages. — Tungusic class. — Mongolic class. — Turkic class. — Turkish grammar. — Finno-Ugric class. — Fins. — Estonians. — Tamulic languages. — Munda languages. — Taic languages. — Gangetic languages. — Lohitic languages. — Languages of Farther India. — Languages of the Caucasus. — Egyptian. — Africa. — America. — Oceanic languages. — Malay. — Polynosia. — Melanesia
Lecture 14.
LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT.
What should we be without language. — Definition of thinking. — What are we thinking of? — Thinking in German or English. — Why we cannot think without words. — Communication not language. — Images. — Involuntary and voluntary sounds. — The Bow wow Pooh-pooh and Yo-heho theories. — Roots. — Words derived from conceptual roots. — Are concepts possible without words? — Borkeley. — Process of naming. — Origin of concepts. — Former theories. — The clamor concomitans. — The conceptual foundation of language. — Our conceptual world
Lecture 15.
DYNAMIC STAGE.
Lessons of language. — Roots express our acts. — Some acts conceived as passive. — Subjective acts predicated of other agents. — Subjective acts predicated of objects. — Dynamic stage. — Animism. — Egypt. — Semitic names. — Finland. — Hidatsas in North America. — Growth of language. — Causality. — Objections answered. — Gender. — Dyaus as a masculine
Lecture 16.
MYTHOLOGY.
Myths. — Meaning of mythology. — Etymology of μύ̑θος. — Myth a word. — Eos. — — Mythology universal. — Comparative mythology and its three divisions. — Comparative philology. — Etymological school. — Analogical school. — Psychological school. — Comparative mythology. — A. Barth. — Etymological School. — Analogical school. — Psychological school. — I. The Etymological School. — Names of gods. — Dialectic varieties. — Obsolete names. — The Dawn. — Religious germs. — Moral germs. — Ahanâ = Athene. — Daphne. — Benfey's theory of Athene
Lecture 17.
THE GENEALOGICAL SCHOOL.
Identification and comparison. — Sarad and Ceres. — Mythological etymologies. — Changes in the character of gods. — Accidental similarities of names. — Foreign gods. — Mythological names which admit of no etymology. — The names of gods. — The etymological meaning must be physical. — Learned and popular etymologies of Greeks and Romans. — Haritas and Charites. — Fors Fortuna. — Nomina and cognomina
Lecture 18.
THE ANALOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL SCHOOLS.
II. The Analogical School. — Characters common to gods and heroes of different names. — Rudra Apollon Wuotan. — Myths agreeing in one and differing in other names. — Varuna and Ormazd. — III. The Psychological School. — Völker-psychologie. — Advantages in England India Colonios Missionary Societies. — Work done in America. — The true meaning of Manito
Lecture 19.
ON CUSTOMS AND LAWS.
Materials for the study of customs and laws. — Customs based on religious ideas. — Customs generating religious ideas. — Sollennis. — Annual festivals. — Istar and Tammuz. — Zeus Xenios. — How customs should be studied
Lecture 20.
SACRED BOOKS.
What is a sacred book? — The five birthplaces of sacred books. — Survey of sacred books. — India. — The Veda. — Buddhism. — Influence of the Kshatriyas the nobility. — Media and Persia. — China. — Palestine. — Judaism. — Christianity. — Mohammedanism. — The Eight Religions. — Book-religions. — The invention of writing. — Influence of writing on religion. — Individual and national religions. — Mohammed. — Christ. — Buddha — Confucius. — Lao-fze. — Zoroaster. — Moses — Sacred books when consigned to writing. — The founders of religions are never the writers of sacred books. — The Veda originally not written. — The Avesta originally not written. — The Tripitaka not Buddha's work. — Confucius writer not author of the Kings. — The Old Testament. — The New Testament. — Mohammed could neither read nor write. — Religions with and without sacred books. — Conclusion

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