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It was a great pleasure to return to the University of Aberdeen to give this second series of Gifford Lectures. I am grateful indeed for the hospitality of members of the Philosophy Department and the Faculty of Divinity, especially Robin Cameron, Nigel Dower, David Fergusson, and Michael Partridge.

I am deeply indebted to the people who subsequently read a draft of the manuscript and offered suggestions for revising it: Deane Barbour, Nigel Dower, Frederick Ferré, Edward Langerak, Carl Mitcham, Robert Russell, and Roger Shinn. Helpful comments on individual chapters came from Gene Bakko, John Barbour, Peter Hartel, Chuck Huff, Roger Kirchner, Ernest Simmons, and Norman Vig.

Many of the topics considered here were discussed in courses and seminars in the program in Science, Technology, and Public Policy at Carleton College. The insights of students and faculty colleagues from a wide range of disciplines contributed to the formulation of several of these chapters. Earlier versions of portions of chapters 1, 2, 3, and 9 were presented in my Technology, Environment, and Human Values (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1980).

In response to the joy of months shared in Aberdeen, and a life shared for forty-five years, this volume is dedicated to Deane.