Technics as old as man. The problem of technics new resulting from the technical revolution. Technical man precedes technical revolution. Robinson Crusoe. Effects of the technical revolution on man. The tragic coincidence: technical revolution in the age of secularisation. Means and ends reversed. The spiritual cause of this reversal. The fatal course of technics—towards the abyss? Ethical appeal and education inadequate. The Christian alternative to the technical apocalypse.
Science younger than technics. Its relation to truth. Natural science and Geisteswissenschaften. The scientific ethos. Its Christian basis. No necessary conflict with faith. The influence of sin upon science. Scientific mythology. Science and the postulate of “religious neutrality”. The value of Christian anthropology for the Geisteswissenschaften. Science within the totality of human destiny.
III. TRADITION AND RENEWAL
The modern age anti-traditional. Tradition: cultural memory. Christianity and tradition. Christianity guardian of Greek cultural values. Social tradition and social rootlessness. Christianity and change. “Not yet” and “no more”. The newness of life in the Gospel. The revolutionary force of Christian faith. Renewal of centre and periphery. Revolutionary conservatism.
Education and community. The Socratic programme of education. Its incomparable influence. Its relation to Christianity. The German idealist idea of Bildung. Its aristocratic character. The original Christian idea of education. Its deformation by theological intellectualism. The Reformation ignores the Socratic element. Pestalozzi's rediscovery. Kierkegaard's contribution. Secularist education in our age. The Christian idea in the modern setting.
Why do men work? The classical (Aristotelian) conception of work. Its influence in the middle ages. The Marxist idea its counterpart. Luther's rediscovery of vocation. The modern crisis of the “motifs” of work. Its essential causes. Collectivism unable to restore the dignity of work. The Christian conception of work both as stimulus and as moderating force.
Comprehensive conception of “art”. The mystery of art deeper than beauty. Imaginary elevation of existence. The danger of aestheticism. The second commandment. “Christian art”? Form primary in art but art presupposes human depth. Art in relation to Roman Catholic and Protestant religion. Can art survive secularism? The metaphysical basis of passion. Formalism and barbarism. Art and “the sabbath”.
Material presuppositions of cultural life. Personality and property. The abstract material good money and credit. Its danger for personality and community. Capitalism according to Marx. Wealth in the light of the Bible. No Biblical system of economics. Ethical interest in economic structure. Communism necessarily totalitarian. The dilemma of social security and the free society. Christianity and the economic motif. Onesidedness of Max Weber's theory concerning Calvinistic capitalism. Christianity and secularist materialism.
VIII. SOCIAL CUSTOM (SITTE) AND LAW… 101
Destruction of social habit by individualistic rationalism. Social habit basis of personal morality. The New Testament and social habit. Along with artistic “style” social habit destroyed in the last century. Law filling the gap. Natural and positive law. Positivism. Pre-state and state-Law. Gospel and Law. The created order. Equal rights in Stoicism and Christianity. Polarity of personal rights and social obligation. Law and sin. Secularism increases coercive law.
Restrictive definition. Having and using power. Will-to-power. Material and spiritual elements in power. Power and freedom. Limiting and monopolising ultimate power the state. The “division of power”. State sovereignty and God-sovereignty. The unlimited state power the totalitarian state. Power in inter-state relations. The attempts to limit national sovereignty. The universal world state in the light of Christian faith. Culture power and religion.
X. THE CHRISTIAN IDEA OF CIVILISATION AND CULTURE
Coming back to the first lecture. What can Christian civilisation mean? Man alone produces civilisation. Essence of civilisation. Its basic motifs. Civilisation human but not the Human. Why it is “formal”. The place of civilisation and culture in the Christian conception of life. Some objections answered. The Christian idea: the human above the cultural; the physical-spiritual unity of man; the civic element fundamental therefore civilisation above culture. The place of tradition and education. The “highest cultural values”—how far? Art and science in the service of God and of man. The present chances for the realisation of the Christian idea.
EPILOGUE. CHRISTIANITY BEYOND CIVILISATION