The Development of ReligionIts Relation to Theology, as the Reflective Form of the Religions ConsciousnessIncreasing Influence of Reflexion in the Highest Religious, especially in Judaism and ChristianityHow a Religion grows into a TheologyHow Theology and Religion, Reason and Faith, become opposed to each otherImportance of the Interests on both sidesThe Danger of sacrificing either of them to the otherThe Idea of Evolution as an EireniconThe unity of man's life in its different phasesCarlyle's view of the Alternation of Action and ReflexionObjections to the Law of Evolution, (1) from those who separate Philosophy from Life, (2) from those who separate Life from PhilosophyIn what sense Theology begins in Greece
The Central Idea of Religion, and its Reflective Expression in TheologyThe Opposition of the Secular and the Religious ConsciousnessThat the Idea of Religion is expressed only in the Highest ReligionAnswer to an Objection to this ViewThree Periods in the Development of TheologyCharacteristics of the Theological Philosophy of GreeceCharacteristics of the Theology of the Early Christian and Medieval PeriodsCharacteristics of Modern Theology or Philosophy of Religion
Plato as the Father of TheologyHis Mysticism and his IdealismThe Eleatic and Ionic SchoolsThe One and the ManySocratesHis Relation to AnaxagorasHis Limitation of Philosophy to EthicsHis Idea of the Moral Life as an ArtHis View of the Place of Knowledge in MoralityOnesidedness of this ViewThe Conscious and the Unconscious in Moral LifeIndividualistic Tendencies of Socrates and the Minor SocraticsPlato's Philosophy as a Synthesis of Pre-Socratic with Socratic Ideas
Plato as the Disciple of SocratesHis Dissatisfaction with the Socratic view of EthicsThe Dialogue Protagoras as the Turning-pointSocrates opposed as a scientific Hedonist to the Morality of OpinionThe Problem of the MenoThe Myth of Reminiscence and its MeaningThe Development of Knowledge from Opinion to ScienceRight Opinion as InspirationThe New View of Ethics in the GorgiasDoing What We Will, and Doing What Seems BestOpposition of a Science of Ethics which begins with the Idea of the Whole to HedonismLight thrown by this Distinction upon the Theory of Ideas
Development of the Ideal TheoryNegative Relation of Ideas to Sense and Opinion exhibited in the PhaedoTheir Positive Relation exhibited in the SymposiumThe Mystic and the ArtistPlato's Metaphysical Attempt to combine these two RelationsThe Systematic Unity of IdeasThe Principle of Anaxagoras and his Application of itPlato's Criticism of AnaxagorasHis method not different from that of the Physical PhilosophersPlato's Substitute for itThe Theory of Ideas and the Method of DialecticRegress to the Highest IdeaPlato's View of the Relation of Final to Efficient Causes.
Note on Plato's Relation to AnaxagorasThe δεύτερος πλου̂ςIdeas as CausesThe Regressive Method and the Hierarchy of Ideas
The Republic as an Educational TreatiseThe Organic Idea of the StatePlato's Opposition to IndividualismHis SocialismThe Philosopher-KingThat Virtue is Knowledge only for the RulerThe Ideal too great for the CityStatePlato's Criticism of the Mythology of Greece and his Proposals for its ImprovementMythology for the Many and Philosophy for the FewPossibility of such a Division between Faith and ReasonTwo Ways of IdealismThe Idea of GoodThe Unworldliness of the PhilosopherDifficulty of connecting Contemplation with PracticeThree ways of Defining the Idea of Good: First, by Extension of the Individual Ideal of Socrates; Secondly, by the Analogy of the Sun; Thirdly, by the Synthesis of the Principles of the SciencesCriticism of the Neo-Platonic Explanation of the Idea of GoodDifficulty of Defining the Ultimate Principle of UnityMystic and Idealistic Solutions of itThe Relation of the Idea of Good to God
Necessity of Uniting Analysis and Synthesis in DialecticPlato's Conception of the Art of RhetoricHis Method of DivisionHis Attempt to Combine the Eleatic with the Heraclitean DoctrinesHis Criticism of Sensationalism and the Doctrine of Flux in the TheaetetusHis Criticism of Abstract Idealism and the Eleatic Conception of the One in the SophistThe Problem of the One and the Many in the ParmenidesIdeas not Abstractions or Separate Substances, but Principles of Unity in DifferenceIdeas neither purely Objective nor purely SubjectiveThe Unity of Thought and RealityAbsolute Reality of MindAre Minds the only Real SubstancesPossibility of Degrees of RealityPlato's Grades of Souls
The Argument of the PhaedoConnection of the Doctrine of the Immortality of the Soul with the conception of TransmigrationWordsworth and PlatoInference from the Nature of the Objects of Intelligence as contrasted with Sensible ObjectsThe Ontological Argument for ImmortalityIts Relation to the Ontological Argument for the Being of GodObjections to bothRestatement of them in a better formArgument of the RepublicThe Soul not destroyed by the Death of the BodyArgument of the PhaedrusThe Soul as Self-moverThe Relation of all Souls or Minds to the Divine Intelligence
The Relation of the Ideal to the Phenomenal WorldThe Ideal World Organic in itselfDistinction of its Differences from the Differences of the Phenomenal WorldThe Question whether Plato misconceived the Abstraction of ScienceThe Limit and the Unlimited in the PhilebusDistinction of Being and Becoming, of Knowledge and Opinion, in the TimaeusThe Substratum of the Changing Qualities of the Phenomenal WorldIts Identification with SpaceThe Phenomenal as an Image of the IdealDilemma as to its RealityHow the Conditions of Time and Space cause ImperfectionThe Distinction of the Conditions and the Causes of ThingsThe Goodness of God as the Cause of the Existence of the WorldThe Soul as a Mediating Principle between Mind and BodyMathematical Principles as Intermediates between Ideas and Sensible ThingThe Universe as the Only-Begotten Son of GodThe Mystic and Idealistic Aspects of Plato's PhilosophyIs God for Plato Transcendent or Immanent?
Supposed Opposition between the Platonic and Aristotelian Types of MindAristotle's Relation to PlatoPlato's Tendency to Unify and Aristotle's to DistinguishAmbiguity of the two Doctrines, that the Individual is the Real, and that the Universal is the RealHow they Differ and how they may be ReconciledCommon Source of Error in both PhilosophiesAristotle's EmpiricismHis Conception of Organic Unity and DevelopmentHow far he carries these IdeasMan as a Complex Being not One with HimselfThat Discursive Reason and the Feelings of Love and Hate belong to the Perishable Part of ManAristotle ultimately more Dualistic than Plato
The Definition of the SoulThe Life of Nutrition and Reproduction in PlantsThe Life of Sensation and Appetite in AnimalsThe Life of Reason and Will in ManThe Division of the Practical from the Contemplative LifeBeginnings of this Division in Plato and its Completion in AristotleSense in which Ethics is a ScienceDependence of Moral Science upon PracticeHow it can assist PracticeMan as a σύνθεтονThe Bliss of the Contemplative LifeHow far Man can Partake in itThe Religious Aspect of Ethics and of the Contemplative Life
Aristotle's View of the Relation of Reason and PassionHis Ambiguous Utterances as to the WillTendency to forget the Unreflective Activity of ReasonDifficulties in Relation to the Free Activity of Reason in ContemplationExperience as the Beginning of all KnowledgeConception of Science as DemonstrationVarious Views of Scientific MethodAristotle's Actual Method higher than his Logical TheoryConnexion of his Method with his IndividualismWhether an Individual Substance can be regarded as part of a more Comprehensive Individual SubstanceDifficulties in the Definition of SubstanceAccount of Reason in the De AnimaIts two AspectsIts Relation to ObjectsDistinction of Actual and Potential ReasonThe Relation of Reason to SenseThe Intuitive Reason and its Freedom from ErrorSensible and Intelligible MatterHow far Intuitive Reason frees itself from bothDifficulties as to the purely Affirmative Nature of Intuitive ReasonWhether the Object of Aristotle's Intuitive Reason is AbstractTendency to Mysticism as the Result of Aristotle's View
Aristotle's Exaltation of Theory contrasted with Kant's View of the Primacy of Practical ReasonKant's View of Experience and its Relation to the Ideas of ReasonThe Ideas of God, Freedom and ImmortalityKnowledge and BeliefBelief founded on the Will to BelieveLikeness and Difference of the Kantian and the Aristotelian viewsInsufficiency of Subjective Grounds of BeliefKant's View of the Relation of Teleology and MechanismTeleological Conceptions in Modern BiologyHow Kant supplies the Means of Transcending his own Conception of KnowledgeRelation of Consciousness and Self-consciousnessThe Identity beneath the Difference of Reason and WillRelativity of the Opposition of What Is to What Ought To BeAristotle's View of the Relation of Formal and Final to Efficient and Material CausesThe False Ideal of Exact ScienceIn what Sense the Highest Object is the SimplestWhy we find Contingency in the Lives of Animals and MenThe Unity of the Ideal and the RealThe Unity of the Theoretical and the Practical Consciousness