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Beyond Ideology 1979–1980

Ninian Roderick Smart

Bibliographical Notes
Chapter 1
The World’s Religions and Ideologies in Interaction
The Views across the Pacific and the North Sea. A beautiful and scholarly introduction to the Pacific as a cultural area in modern history is Rosélène Dousset and Étienne Taillemite The Great Book of the Pacific (Secaucus, NJ: Chartwell Books, 1979).
Religion and Ideology: an Ideological Distinction. For discussion of some of the issues about the relation between secular and traditional worldviews see David Martin A General Theory of Secularization (New York: Harper and Row, 1978), which also deals interestingly with the way deep cultural structures affect secularization. John Plamenatz Ideology (New York: Praegaw, 1970), I have found a useful guide to the history of the idea of ideology. The meaning of the breakdown of the religion-and-ideology distinction is explored partly in my The Principles and Meaning of the Study of Religion (University of Lancaster Religious Studies Department, 1970), and ‘Ways of Looking: Religion, Philosophy and the Future’, Encounter, March 1978.
The Global City. I substitute ‘city’ for ‘village’ for reasons which relate to the complexity of the planetary situation, following Marshall McLuhan Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (New York: McGraw Hill, 1964) and his earlier The Gutenberg Galaxy (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1962). There is also recent sociological interest in ‘globology’, starting from a somewhat Marxian and economic point of view: see Albert Bergesen (ed.) Studies of the Modern World-System (New York: Academic Press, 1980), and Immanuel Wallerstein The Modern World-System (New York: Academic Press, 1976).
The Relationship of Worldviews a Matter of Flesh and Blood. I tried to expound some of the human factors of these larger relations in The Long Search (Boston: Little Brown, 1978; London: BBC Publications, 1978). A relevant pioneering work is Trevor Ling Buddha, Marx and God (New York: St Martin’s Press, 1966). One example of the way some religious and ideological clashes have been worked out can be seen in William Shawcross Sideshow: Kissinger, Nixon and the Destruction of Cambodia (London: Fontana, 1980).
Eastern Worldviews Today. There is of course an extensive literature. Among relevant titles are such classical (but value-laden) expositions as S. Radhakrishnan’s Thè Hindu View of Life (London: Allen and Unwin, 1927); surveys such as Jerrold Schecter The New ‘Face of the Buddha (London: Gallancz, 1967) and Raymond Hammer Japan’s Religious Ferment (London: SCM Press, 1960). Holmes Welch’s various magisterial works on modern China are important, including The Buddhist Revival in China (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1968). On smaller Eastern faiths, two important modern approaches are W. H. McLeod Gurū Nānak and the Sikh Tradition (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968), and Padmanabh S. Jaini The Jaina Path of Purification (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979).
Western Asia. Some of the underlying forces shaping recent Islamic events are described in Wilfred Cantwell Smith Islam in Modern History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957). For modern Judaism see Joseph Blau Modern Varieties of Judaism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1966).
Christianity at Large. I have attempted a new look at the variations of contemporary Christianity in The Phenomenon of Christianity (London: Collins, 1979), published in the United States as In Search of Christianity (New York: Harper and Row, 1979). See also William Clebsch Christianity in European History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979). My analysis of Christianity owes points to the following works: Ronald Knox Enthusiasm (New York: Oxford University Press, 1950); F. Ernest Stoeffler The Rise of Evangelical Pietism (Numen Supplement 9, Leiden: Brill, 1965); A. R. Vidler The Church in an Age of Revolution, 1789 to the Present Day (Baltimore: Penguin, 1971); Steven Runciman The Orthodox Churches and the Secular State (Auckland: Auckland University Press, 1971); Stephen Charles Neill Christian Missions (Baltimore: Penguin, 1965).
Each Worldview Needs a View of the Others. I explored the issues informally in World Religions: a Dialogue (Baltimore: Penguin, 1966) — a reprint of A Dialogue of Religions (London: SCM Press, 1960). See also John Carman and Donald Dawe (editors) Christian Faith in a Religiously Plural World (New York: Orbis, 1978); John R. Hinnells (ed.) Comparative Religion in Education (Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Oriel, 1970); Arnold Toynbee Christianity among the Religions of the World (New York: Scribner, 1957); and Emma Layman Buddhism in America (Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1976). Some of the primary issues about the attempt to see a transcendental unity of all religions are discussed in my The Yogi and the Devotee (London: Allen and Unwin, 1968).
Buddhism and Christianity: Widespread and Mirroring. Among writings on the relationship between Buddhism and Christianity are Henri de Lubac Aspects of Buddhism (New York: Sheed and Ward, 1953); Heinrich Dumoulin Christianity meets Buddhism (La Salle, Ill.: Open Court Publishing Co., 1974); Douglas A. Fox Buddhism, Christianity and the Future of Religion (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1972) and Winston King Buddhism and Christianity: Some Bridges of Understanding (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1962). Ahead of its time was B. H. Streeter The Buddha and the Christ (New York: Macmillan, 1933).
Nationalism and other Identities. The analysis of nationalism by political scientists owes much to Karl W. Deutsch, as seen in his Interdisciplinary Bibliography on Nationalism (Cambridge, Mass.: Technology Press of MIT, 1956). See also Hans Kohn Ideas of Nationalism (London: Macmillan, 1961) and various works by Anthony D. Smith Theories of Nationalism (New York: Harper and Row, 1971), Nationalism in the Twentieth Century (New York: New York University Press, 1979), Nationalist Movements (New York: St Martin’s Press, 1977) and Nationalism: A Trend Report and Bibliography prepared for the International Sociological Association (The Hague: Mouton, 1975). Important to our whole argument is the concept of civil religion: see Robert Bellah ‘Civil Religion in America’ in American Civil Religion, edited by Russell E. Richey and Donald G. Jones (New York: Harper and Row, 1974) and Phillip Hammond ‘The Sociology of American Civil Religion: A Bibliographic Essay’, Sociological Analysis, 37, No. 2, 1976. Also important is W. J. M. Mackenzie Political Identity (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1978).
The Understanding between Worldviews and a New View of the Planet. On the persistence of religion and its transformations works from two very different context make an interesting counterpoint: Michael Bourdeaux Opium of the People: the Christian Religion in the USSR (London: Mowbrays, 1977) and Jacob Needleman New Religions (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1970). See also the good discussion in Trevor Ling Karl Marx and Religion (London: Macmillan, 1980).
Chapter 2
Towards a Theory of the Configurations of Religion
Histories and Patterns. For the history of the history of religions J. de Vries Perspectives in the History of Religions (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977) could be more reflective. Fuller is Eric J. Sharpe’s excellent Comparative Religion (New York: Scribner, 1976). See also Jacques Waardenburg’s two volumes Classical Approaches to the Study of Religion (The Hague: Mouton, 1973 and 1974). For a briefer anatomy of the study of religion see my ‘The Study of Religion’ in Encyclopedia Britannica (1975 edition). I have been somewhat influenced in this chapter by such phenomenological and comparative works as W. Brede Kristensen The Meaning of Religion (The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1960); Mircea Eliade Patterns in Comparative Religion (New York: Sheed and Ward, 1958), M. Eliade and J. Kitagawa (editors) The History of Religions: Essays in Methodology (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959); Gerardus van der Leeuw Religion in Essence and Manifestation (New York: Harper and Row, 1963), and Victor Turner The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure (Chicago: Aldine, 1969). On certain aspects of related areas of enquiry I have drawn on E. E. Evans-Pritchard Theories of Primitive Religion (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961); B. Malinowski Magic, Science and Religion and Other Essays (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1970); Thomas F. O’Dea Sociology and the Study of Religion (New York: Basic Books, 1970) and Bryan R. Wilson (ed.) Rationality (Evanston, Ill.: Harper and Row, 1970).
Types and Organisms. On the organic character of religious systems see my earliest discussion of the point in Reasons and Faiths (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1958).
Culture, Interpretation and Intra-religious Explanation. On the general question see Clifford Geertz Interpretation of Cultures (New York: Basic Books, 1973) and ‘Religion as a Cultural System’ in William A. Lessa and Evons Z. Vogt, editors, Reader in Comparative Religion (New York: Harper and Row, 1965). See also Nathan Söderblom The Living God: Basal Forms of Personal Religion (Boston: Beacon Press, 1962) and Joachim Wach and Joseph Kitagawa The Comparative Study of Religion (New York: Columbia University Press, 1958). The notion of intra-religious explanation is explored in Ninian Smart The Science of Religion and the Sociology of Knowledge (Princeton; Princeton University Press, 1973).
Bracketing the Transcendent: Standing Back from God. My approach is somewhat critical of the non-neutral theoretical approach of Peter L. Berger The Sacred Canopy (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1969). For the general notion see also Edmund Husserl Ideas (London: Macmillan, 1969).
The Relationship of Power and Performance. For general theory see John Searle Speech Acts: an Essay in the Philosophy of Language (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969). Also relevant are Victor Turner The Ritual Process (Chicago: Aldine, 1969) and various works by Erving Goffman, notably The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1959).
Ritual and Performative Acts as Paths of Power. The analogies between religious and ‘secular’ uses of performative power are partly explored in ‘The Bounds of Religion and the Transition from the Tao to Mao’ Sri Lanka Journal of the Humanities, vol.i, no. 1 (June 1975).
The Science of Religion as an Interpreter of History. For Eliade’s views on this see The Quest: History and Meaning in Religion (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969) and A History of Religious Ideas (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978; London: Collins, 1979). For a divergent view see my ‘Beyond Eliade: the Future of Theory in Religion’ Numen, xxv, fasc. 2, August, 1978, and ‘Ways of Looking: Religion, Philosophy and the Future’, Encounter, March 1978.
Chapter 3
Christianity Seen from Adam’s Peak
Buddhism Ancient and Modern in Sri Lanka. An excellent account, blending text and participant observation, is Richard F. Gombrich Precept and Practice: Traditional Buddhism in the Rural Highlands of Ceylon (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971). I have commented on this in ‘Precept and Theory in Sri Lanka’, Religion, vol.III, No. 1, 1973. For a brief introduction to the Theravada see Ninian Smart Buddhism and the Death of God (Southampton: University of Southampton, 1970). For modern history see Walpola Rahula History of Buddhism in Ceylon (Colombo: M. D. Gunasena, 1966) and for ancient history A. K. Warder Indian Buddhism (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1970).
A Question from Christianity. Part of this question is raised in a more formal way in my ‘The Work of the Buddha and the Work of Christ’ in S. G. F. Brandon, editor, The Saviour God (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1963).
Western Civilization and the Eastern World-picture. On the divergence of cosmologies see my ‘Reincarnation and Eastern Attitudes’ The Listener, August 9, 1962; and K. N. Jayatilleke The Message of the Buddha (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1975).
The Cultural Effects of the Small Cosmos. A good source for cosmologies in the Western tradition is Milton K. Munitz Theories of the Universe: from Babylonian Myth to Modern Science (New York: Free Press, 1965).
Divine Power and Buddhist Knowledge. The best account of the early Buddhist notion of knowledge as interpreted by the Theravada, see K. N. Jayatilleke Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1962). Also for a different perspective, H. V. Guenther Philosophy and Psychology in the Abhidharma (Lucknow: Buddha Vihara, 1962).
Emptiness and Substance. David J. Kalupahana Causality: the Central Philosophy of Buddhism (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1975) is excellent from a more technical direction, and Frederick Streng Emptiness: A Study in Religious Meaning (New York: Abingdon Press, 1967) is a sophisticated religionist’s explication of the religious sense of Emptiness. For a somewhat less ‘negative’ interpretation see T. R. V. Murti The Central Philosophy of Buddhism (London: Allen and Unwin, 1955).
The Meaning of Buddhist Transcendence. See Udana, 80–81, Khuddaka Nikāya, 1:3,8. For an account of the relationship of transcendence to consciousness see Rune Johansson The Dynamic Psychology of Early Buddhism (London: Curzon Press, 1979) and also his The Psychology of Nirvāna (London: Allen and Unwin, 1969). For the distinction between theism and Theravadin conceptions of the ultimate see Gunapala Dharmasiri A Buddhist Critique of the Christian Concept of God (Colombo: Lake House Investments, 1974). For what I consider to be the clearest analysis of transcendence, see my article ‘Myth and Transcendence’ The Monist, vol. 50, no. 4 (October, 1966).
Christ and the Buddha. The quotation is Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologica III q.16, art.6, obj. 1 and 2. For the notion of Christ’s mythic defeat of evil see Gustaf Aulén Christus Victor (London: SPCK, 1953). As for the results of more recent reflections in myth and historicity, there is James M. Robinson A New Quest of the Historical Jesus (London: SCM Press, 1959). In ‘The Work of the Buddha and the Work of Christ’ I compare the two contexts, in S. G. F. Brandon (ed.) The Saviour God, Comparative Studies in the Concept of Salvation (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1963).
Priest and Monk. The typology is discussed in Van der Leeuw Religion in Essence and Manifestation (New York: Harper and Row, 1963); and elsewhere, see especially Joachim Wach Sociology of Religion (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962). Note the evolution of monasticism in Buddhism, as described for example in Nalinaksha Dutt Early Monastic Buddhism (Calcutta: Oriental Book Agency, 1960).
The Existential and the Holy. Some of the issues are discussed in my ‘Beyond Eliade: The Future of Theory in Religion’ Numen, vol. xxv, Fasc. 2 (August, 1980).
Self-help and Other-dependence. The contrast is discussed in a theological context in my The Yogi and the Devotee (London: Allen and Unwin, 1968).
The Shape of Sacramental Power. An outline of this theory is found in my The Phenomenon of Religion (2nd edn. London: Mowbray, 1978).
The Self and the Non-self. A very useful clarification of relations between these ideas is formed in Lynn A. de Silva The Problem of the Self in Buddhism and Christianity (New York: Barnes & Noble, 1979). The question of how to interpret the Buddhist outlook is central to the discussion of mystical experience, e.g., R. C. Zaehner in his At Sundry Times (London: Faber and Faber, 1958) reads a Self into Buddhism. For a critique of this not uncommon Western view see my ‘Interpretation and Mystical Experience’ Religious Studies vol. 1, no. 1 (1965), and ‘Mystical Experience’ Sophia, vol. 1, no. 1 (April 1962), and the volumes Mystics and Scholars, edited by Harold Coward and Terence Penelhum (Waterloo, Ontario: Waterloo University Press, 1977) and Steven T. Katz Mysticism and Philosophical Analysis (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978).
The Drama and the Centre. For a recent placement of drama and ritual, see T. J. Scheff Catharsis in Healing, Ritual and Drama (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979). For the way history is perceived dramatically, see Reinhold Niebuhr The Self and the Drama of History (New York: Scribner, 1955) and my In Search of Christianity (New York: Harper and Row, 1979).
Rebirth and Karma. A full discussion of the afterlife is found in John Hick Death and Eternal Life (New York: Harper and Row, 1977; London: Fount Paperbacks, 1979). I discuss the idea of Eastern liberation in ‘Living Liberation: jīvamukti and nirvāna’ in E. J. Sharpe and John Hinnells (editors) Man and His Salvation (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1973), and in my Doctrine and Argument in Indian Philosophy (London: Allen and Unwin, 1964).
Chapter 4
Reflections on Buddhism and Christianity
Pattern and Accident in Religion. Some of the theoretical issues are discussed in my The Science of Religion and the Sociology of Knowledge (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1973).
The Purification of Consciousness. For a discussion of some of the problems of mystical consciousness see Robert Gimello ‘Mysticism and Meditation’ in Steven T. Katz (ed.) op. cit., and ‘Mysticism in its Context’ in Steven T. Katz (ed.) Mysticism and Religious Traditions (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980). However, my own view is less intellectualist than Gimello’s.
The Context of the Buddha’s Search. The most recent full length biography of the Buddha is that of Trevor Ling The Buddha: Buddhist Civilization in India and Ceylon (London: Temple Smith, 1972). As the title suggests it is very much a contextualizing account of the founder of the religion as seen in the later texts.
Types of Religious Experience. The theory here outlined owes something of course to Otto and Söderblom, and was first presented by me in Reasons and Faiths: an Investigation of Religious Discourse (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1958). See also ‘Problems of the Application of Western terminology to Theravada Buddhism, with special reference to the relationship between the Buddha and the Gods’ Religion, vol. 2, no. 1 (1972), and ‘Nirvana and Timelessness’ in Journal of Dharma, vol. 1, no. 4 (July, 1976).
The Numinous in Buddhism. A classical account of Buddhist worship and bhakti is Har Dayal The Bodhisattva Doctrine in Buddhist Sanskrit Literature (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1970). There is much relevant material in Mircea Eliade Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1964). See also, for the sacramental ambience of the numinous, Guiseppe Tucci The Religions of Tibet (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979).
Substance and Sacrament in the Indian Tradition. I have found some of the following useful in reflecting on the diversity of the Hindu tradition Alain Daniélou Hindu Polytheism (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1964); Nirad C. Chaudhuri’s maverick and sometimes suggestive Hinduism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979); Mircea Eliade’s magisterial Yoga, Immortality and Freedom (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1958) and the also magisterial Surendranath Dasgupta’s writings, especially of course his History of Indian Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 5 vols., 1951–1955).
The Logic of Non-self. See my Buddhism and the Death of God (Southampton: University of Southampton, 1970), and Edward Conze Buddhist Thought in India (London: Allen and Unwin, 1962).
Buddhism as Pure Mysticism. This view of Theravada is found in a different form in K. N. Jayatilleke Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge (London: Allen and Unwin, 1963).
The Validity and Invalidity of Religious Experience. See Steven T. Katz, op. cit., (1978).
Prophetic Religion and Christ in History. For modern ‘prophetic’ interpretations see Hendrik Kraemer The Christian Message in a Non-Christian World (Grand Rapids: Kregel, 1961), and A. Van Leeuwen Christianity in World History (New York: Scribner, 1964).
Identity, Myth and Personalism. Some of the issues are explored in John Perry (ed.) Personal Identity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975) and in my ‘Religion, Myth and Nationalism’ in The Scottish Journal of Religious Studies, vol. 1, no. 1 (1980), and ‘Creation, Persons and the Meaning of Life’ in R. Ruddock (ed.) Six Approaches to the Person (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1972).
The Mystical in Christianity. For a recent anthology see Walter Capps and Wendy Wright (editors) Silent Fire (New York: Harper and Row, 1978). Influential have been Evelyn Underhill’s classic Mysticism: A Study in the Nature and Development of Man’s Spiritual Consciousness (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1961); W. R. Inge’s Christian Mysticism (New York: Meridian, 1956); F. von Hügel’s The Mystical Element in Religion as studied in St Catherine of Geona and her Friends (London: Dent, 1909); and David Knowles’ The Nature of Mysticism (New York: Hawthorne, 1966). Such writers were largely unaware of Indian and Far Eastern parallels and contrasts.
Emptying in Christianity. A number of recent writers have stressed kenotic forms of Christianity in relation to Buddhism. As for the general problem see Michael Pye and Robert Morgan (eds.) TheCardinal Meaning: Essays in Comparative Hermeneutics, Buddhism and Christianity (The Hague, Mouton, 1973).
A Final Note on Christian Mysticism. See my ‘History of Mysticism’ in Paul Edwards (ed.) The Encyclopedia of Philosophy (New York: The Free Press, 1967).
Chapter 5
The Great Vehicle and the Protestant Spirit
The Logic of Devotion. The argument is laid out also in a different form in my The Long Search (New York: Little Brown, 1979).
Novelty in the Great Vehicle. See the seminal Skilful Means: A Concept in Mahayana Buddhism (London: Duckworth, 1978) by Michael Pye, as also his ‘Assimilation and Skilful Means’, Religion, Vol. 1, No. 2 (1971).
Two Levels of Truth. See a recent discussion: Chris Gudmunsen Wittgenstein and Buddhism (London: Macmillan, 1977).
Developments in Greater Vehicle Philosophy. The writings of Edward Conze are most important, of course, especially his Buddhist Thought in India (London: Allen and Unwin, 1962); Buddhist Wisdom Books (do., 1958); Thirty Years of Buddhist Studies (London: Cassirer, 1967); and his various editions of the Prajñāpāramitā texts (London: Luzac, 1973); Vajracchedikā (Rome: Serie Orientale XIII, 1957); The Large Sūtra on Perfect Wisdom (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975); The Perfection of Wisdom in Eight Thousand Lines and Its Verse Summary (Bolinas: Four Seasons Foundation, 1973); The Prajñāpāramitā Literature (Indo-Iranian Monographs, no. 6, The Hague: Mouton, 1960). Also important are: Étienne Lamotte Histoire du Bouddhisme Indien (Louvain: Publications Universitaires, 1958); A. Rawlinson Studies in the Lotus Sutra (2 vols., University of Lancaster Doctoral Thesis, 1972); D. T. Suzuki Outlines of Mahayana Buddhism (London: Allen and Unwin, 1963), and R. H. Robinson’s fine Early Madhyamika in India and China (Madison: University of Wisconsin Gress, 1967).
Nirvana is Samsara. See J. Takakura The Essentials of Buddhist Philosophy (3rd edn., Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1956); and D. J. Kalupahana ‘Prolegomena to the Philosophy of Relations in Buddhism’ University of Ceylon Review, 19 (1964).
The Bodhisattva. Quote from Siksāsamuccaya 281, in E. Conze Buddhist Texts (London: Cassirer, 1954) p. 132. See also I. B. Horner (tr.) Milindapañha: Milinda’s Questions (London: Luzac, 1969).
The Three Bodies of the Buddha. See my ‘The Logos and Eastern Beliefs’ Expository Times, 1974, and the discussion in The Religious Experience of Mankind (New York: Scribner, 1969).
Transformation Body of the Buddha. A good discussion is found in Sangharakshita Survey of Buddhism (2nd edn. Bangalore, 1959).
Buddhas as Celestial. See the still delightful account in Sir Charles Eliot Hinduism and Buddhism, vol. 2 (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1954).
Buddhas: Gods and not Gods. See the full discussion in M. M. J. Marasinghe Gods in Early Buddhism (University of Sri Lanka Press, 1974); and the argument in my ‘Precept and Theory in Sri Lanka’, Religion, vol. 3, no. 1 (1973).
The Unity of Buddhas and the Non-dual Experience. See my Reasons and Faiths, and Raimundo Panikkar El Silencio del Dios (Madrid: Guadiana, 1970).
The Philosophical Argument for Unity. See Toshihko Izutsu Towards a Philosophy of Zen Buddhism (Tehran: Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy, 1977).
The Devotional Turn. An economical account is to be found in Trevor Ling A History of Religion East and West (London: Macmillan, 1968).
Belief and the Buddhas. Relevant are D. T. Suzuki’s classic investigations of the Lankāvatāra: e.g., in Studies in the Lankāvatāra Sutra (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1930).
Buddhism and the Business of Rent-a-God. I offer the suggestion in the spirit of serious levity displayed by my friend and colleague Edward Conze, regarding whose achievements see my obituary The Middle Way, vol. 54, no. 4 (February 1980) and other tributes there.
Pure Land and Martin Luther. Quotes from: T. de Bary and others (eds.) Sources of Japanese Tradition (New York: Columbia University Press, 1958), p. 217, from Tannisho ‘Collection Inspired by Concern over Heresy’; and from Spitz and Lewis Luther’s Works, vol. 34 (Philadelphia: Muhlenberg Press, 1960), p. 337.
The Dramatization of Experience and Grace. I work out this theme in In Search of Christianity (New York: Harper and Row, 1979).
The Vitality of Numinous Dependence and the Question of Validity. See John Baillie The Idea of Revelation in Recent Thought (New New York: Columbia University Press, 1956); also my article ‘Karl Barth’ in Paul Edwards (ed.) The Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Self-criticism and the 19th Century. A major philosophical appraisal is Van Harvey’s The Historian and the Believer (New York: Macmillan, 1966). See also Claude Welch’s excellent Protestant Thought in the Nineteenth Century (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972) and John Macquarrie’s compendious Twentieth Century Religious Thought (London: SCM Press, 1970).
A Comparison of Jesus and Muhammad. W. Montgomery Watt’s Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman (London: Oxford University Press, 1964) is very useful, as an example of modern evaluation of the evidence.
Fruits of the Critical Mind. On demythologization see Rudolf Bultmann Faith and Understanding (New York: Harper and Row, 1969): the problem of experience and religious truth is explored variously. The beginnings of an interesting approach were found in Paul Tillich Christianity and the Encounter of World Religions (New York: Columbia University Press, 1937).
Buddhist so-called Idealism and the Problem of Representation. The quotation is from E. Conze’s article on the Mahayana in R. C. Zaehner (ed.) Concise Encyclopedia of Living Faiths (London: Hutchinson, 1959).
Buddhism between Idealism and Realism. See the account of Vijñanavāda in A. K. Warder Indian Buddhism (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass 1970).
The Hua-yen Variant. the most decisive recent work is Robert Gimello Chih-yen and the Foundations of Hua-yen: A Study in the Sinification of Buddhism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981). More pious, but enjoyable is Francis H. Cook Hua-yen Buddhism: The Jewel Net of Indra (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1977).
The Modernity of Buddhism. Popular works making this point in a rather sophisticated way are Fritjof Capra The Tao of Physics (New York, Bantam Books, 1975) and Filmer S. C. Northrop The Meeting of East and West (New York: Macmillan, 1946).
Buddhism and Myth. A major study is T. O. Ling Buddhism and the Mythology of Evil (London: Allen and Unwin, 1962).
Religion, Science and Symbolic Values. Some of the issues I discussed in ‘The Universe keeps hitting back’ Listener October 23, 1975, and ‘The Ethical Meaning of Science’ The Advancement of Science, New Issue No. 2, September 1976.
Chapter 6
The Buddhist Meaning of Christianity: The Christian Meaning of Buddhism
The Relationship between Buddhism and Christianity. Apart from the works already cited, it is useful to consider the relation between experience and the transcendent in such discussions as in my Philosophers and Religious Truth (2nd edn. enlarged, London: SCM Press, 1969).
Experience and the Transcendent. See John E. Smith Experience and God (New York: Oxford University Press, 1968) and H. D. Lewis Our Experience of God (London: Allen and Unwin, 1958) for a different approach from mine.
Classifying the Concept of Transcendence. For some traditional views see Josef Pieper The Silence of St Thomas (London: Faber & Faber, 1957); F. L. Prestige God in Patristic Thought (London: SPCK, 1952) and E. Gilson God and Philosophy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1941).
The Transcendent and Empirical Access. For further discussion on this see my Science of Religion and the Sociology of Knowledge (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1973).
The Paradox of Religious Experience. For recent, rather diverse discussions, see T. R. Miles Religious Experience (London: Macmillan, 1972) and my The Philosophy of Religion (2nd edn. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979).
The Power of Experience. This is celebrated in my already cited The Religious Experience of Mankind (New York: Scribner, 1969; London: Fontana, 1971).
The Existence or Non-existence of God: Does it Matter?. The thought might appeal to J. N. Findlay, in relation to his celebrated Ontological disproof (which however may have a deeper existential meaning) — see A. G. N. Flew and Alisdair Maclntyre New Essays in Philosophical Theology (London: SCM Press, 1956).
The Need for the Focus. This terminology I use in The Phenomenon of Religion and The Concept of Worship (New York: St Martin’s Press, 1972).
A Question of Priorities: Dhyāna and Bhakti. The contrast is crucial for much of religion. In the Indian context it is discussed in The Yogi and the Devotee (London: Allen and Unwin, 1968).
Neoplatonism and Buddhism. The quotation is from Pseudo-Dionysius De divinis nominibus, 1:1-2, in C. E. Rolt On the Divine Names and Mystical Theology (London: SPCK, 1971).
The Relation of Criticism to the Spiritual. This has been an important topic for modern Christian discussion — as in Alec Vidler (ed.) Soundings: Essays concerning Christian Understanding (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1962).
Complementarity between Theism and the Great Vehicle. A recent nod in this direction is found in Hans K¨ng Does God Exist? (New York: Doubleday, 1980; London: Collins, 1980).
The Problem of Karma. This has been explored recently in the Indian context by David L. Gosling The Impact of Science on Indian Society (University of Lancaster Doctoral Thesis, 1973).
Religions and the Secular Ideologies. An interesting discussion is Trevor Ling Buddha, Marx and God (New York: St Martin’s Press, 1979).
Chapter 7
Secular Ideologies: A First Anatomy
Secular Ideologies versus Traditional Religions. Influential discussions are found in Paul Tillich Systematic Theology, vol. 1 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973) and What is Religion? (New York: Harper and Row, 1969). Also see my ‘Ways of Looking: Religion, Philosophy and the Future’ Encounter (London, March 1978). And in relation to the question of the study of religion ‘Towards a dialogue at the level of the science of religion: a reply to Ren Jiyu’ Ching Feng vol. xxii, no. 4, Dec. 1979. See also Jorge Larrain The Concept of Ideology (London: Hutchinson, 1979).
The French Revolution and ‘The National Assumption’. See for instance Eric J. Hobsbawn Age of Revolution: 1789 to 1848 (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1962).
The Theory of the Nation State. The best survey of theories is Anthony D. Smith Theories of Nationalism (London: Duckworth, 1971).
Nationalism and Chauvinism. The relationship is brought out in the article ‘Nationalism’ by K. Deutsch in Encyclopedia Britannica, 1975.
Ethnicism and Oppression. See E. Franklin Frazier Race and Culture Contacts in the Modern World (Boston: Beacon Press, 1965), and Jaroslav Krejčí and Vitezslav Velinsky Ethnic and Political Nations in Europe (London: Croom Helm, 1980).
The Development of Totalitarianism. A good general history is James Joll Europe Since 1870: An International History (Harmond-sworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1976).
Social Democracy in the West. For a general account S. I. Benn and R. S. Peters Social Principles and the Democratic State (London: Allen and Unwin, 1959); and for a Popperian defence, see Bryan Magee The New Radicalism (New York: St Martin’s Press, 1963).
The Analysis of the Nation State. Much of the discussion here echoes my account in ‘Religion, Myth and Nationalism’, Scottish Journal of Religious Studies, Vol. 1, no. 1, (1980).
History, Nationhood and Symbols. On the general question of the analysis of symbols, see U. Eco A Theory of Semiotics (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1976); M. Eliade Myth and Reality (New York: Harper and Row, 1967); Paul Ricoeur The Symbolism of Evil (New York: Harper and Row, 1967), Victor Turner The Forest of Symbols (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1967).
The Structure of National Substance. See also L. W. Doob Patriotism and Nationalism: Their Psychological Foundations (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1964) — but I prefer a performative rather than a psychological analysis.
‘We’ or ‘Ushood’. I follow partially Martin Buber I and Thou (2nd edn. New York: Scribner, 1958). See also P. Giglioli (ed.) Language and Social Context (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1972). In regard to the notion of a ‘Substantial’ identity see Delmer M. Brown Nationalism in Japan: An Introductory Historical Analysis (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1955) and R. K. Hall (ed.) Kokutai no Hongi, Cardinal Principles of the National Entity of Japan (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1949).
The Nation and the Open Society. On Karl Popper, see the excellent introduction by Bryan Magee: Karl Popper (New York: Viking Press, 1973). Popper’s most seminal political writing was, of course, The Open Society and its Enemies, 2 vols., 5th rev. ed. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966).
Chapter 8
The Chinese Experience in the Modern World
China and India Compared. For a general discussion see my ‘The bounds of religion and the transition from the Tao to Mao’ Sri Lanka Journal of the Humanities, vol. 1, no. 1 (June, 1975) and ‘Maoism and Religion’ in Ching Feng, vol. xviii, no. 4 (1975). Part of these formed the substance of a plenary address at the 13th Congress of the International Association for the History of Religions, Lancaster, 1975.
The Disintegration of the Old China. A marvellous account of the ideas in the background of Mao’s revolution is Frederick Wakeman’s History and Will: Philosophical Perspectives of Mao Tse-Tung’s Thought (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976). This is a masterpiece in the history of ideas.
The Taiping Rebellion. See Immanuel C. Hsu The Rise of Modern China (New York: Oxford University Press, 1975) and Vincent Y. Shih The Taiping Ideology: its Sources, Interpretation and Influences (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1972).
The Life of Hung. See Franz Michael and Chang Chung-li The Taiping Rebellion: History and Documents, 3 vols.’ (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1971).
The Taiping Collapse. Mao’s own critique of the Taipings can be gleaned from On New Democracy and On Practice ((Peking: Selected Works of Mao Tse-Tung, 1953).
Ideology and Rebellion. See the conclusions of S. Y. Teng’s very full The Taiping Rebellion and the Western Powers (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971).
Confucianism and the Challenge to China. For a general view see Wing-tsit Chan Religious Trends in Modern China (New York: Octagon, 1970).
Confucianism and Performatives. I have been greatly influenced here by Herbert Fingarette’s masterly Confucius: The Secular as Sacred (New York: Harper and Row, 1972). For a good systematic account of performatives and their relationship to theism, see Donald Evans The Logic of Self-Involvement (London: SCM Press, 1969).
Confucianism as a Resource. A recent attempt to look at these aspects of Confucianism which can be abstracted and used in a wider world, eclectically, see Julia Ching Confucianism and Christianity (Tokyo and New York: Kōdansha International, 1977).
Chinese Options: Buddhism. A good general survey is K. K. S. Ch’en Buddhism in China, A Historical Survey (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1964). The various works of Holmes Welch are important, notably The Buddhist Revival in China (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1964) and The Practice of Chinese Buddhism (1900–1950) (as above, 1967).
Chinese Options: Taoism. Here and elsewhere the importance of Joseph Needham’s work is, of course, impossible to overrate: Science and Civilization in China 5 volumes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1954–1970).
The Attraction of Marxism. Quote from Selected Works, 1.300 ‘On Practice’. For a general discussion see my Mao (London: Collins, 1974) and Jerome Ch’en Mao and the Chinese Revolution (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965).
Mao and History. Apart from Frederic Wakeman’s History and Will aforementioned, I owe a lot to Stuart R. Schram’s writings, e.g., Chairman Mao Talks to the People (New York: Pantheon Books, 1975), Mao Tse-tung (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1967) and The Political Thought of Mao Tse-tung (New York, Praeger, 1963).
Chapter 9
Secular Ideology, Religion and Science
The logic of pluralism can be set forth, as in my ‘Does a universal standard of values need to be higher-order? Science and Absolute Values, ICUS Proceedings (London, 1974).
Utilitarianism and Beyond. Among other modern accounts of utilitarianism see Alasdair Maclntyre A Short History of Ethics (New York: Macmillan, 1966), J. J. C. Smart An Outline of a System of Utilitarian Ethics (Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1961) and J. J. C. Smart and Bernard Williams Utilitarianism: For and Against (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973). Also my own work ‘Negative Utilitarianism’ Mind, vol. 67, p. 542 (1958).
Social Personalism and Tradition. The problem of tradition and how best to use it is posed, among other places, in Karl Popper Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge (New York: Harper and Row, 1968).
A Transcendental Logic of Personalism. The effects of differing kinds of transcendentalism on ethics can be seen from David Little and Sumner B. Twiss Comparative Religious Ethics (New York: Harper and Row, 1978) and Ian T. Ramsey Christian Ethics and Contemporary Philosophy (New York: Macmillan, 1973). For varying views see Emmanual Mounier Personalism (South Bend: University of Notre Dame Press, 1970) and Martin Buber Between Man and Man (New York: Macmillan, 1965).
Christian Theism and the Person. For rather different but well argued approaches see Paul I. Lehmann Ethics in a Christian Context (New York: Harper and Row, 1976), and C. C. J. Webb God and Personality (London: Allen and Unwin, 1918).
The Question of Poverty. This has recently been explored by Willy Brandt and colleagues North-South: a programme for survival (London: Pan Books, 1980).
Empathy and Two Levels of Truth. My position is not unlike that of John Dunn The Way of All the Earth: Experiments in Truth and Religion (London: Collins, 1978).
Postscript:
Towards a New Worldview: The Pacific Mind
The Pacific Mind. I hope to develop further this notion in a forthcoming book covering the various worldviews of the countries of the Pacific area.
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